The Aeolids (Αἴολιδαί) were powerful rulers who established kingdoms in many part of Greece. They were descendants of Aeolus, son of Hellen. Aeolus was the powerful ruler of Thessaly. The Aeolids can be found ruling kingdoms in Thessaly, Argos, Corinth, Orchomenus, Elis, Messenia and Calydon.

Note that the House of Elis and the House of Calydon can be found in the page titled Houses of Elis and Calydon.


  After the Deluge
  Thessalian Line
  Boeotian Line
  Corinthian Line
  Argive Line (see Houses of Argolis)
  Messenian Line
  House of Elis
  House of Calydon


Genealogy:
   Descendants of Deucalion
   Aeolids 1: Thessaly & Messenia
   Aeolids 2a: Orchomenus & Corinth
   Aeolids 2b: Orchomenus & Corinth
   Aeolids 3: Elis
   Aeolids 4: Calydon






  Hellen     
  Creusa and Ion      
  Aeolus


Ἕλλην
Hellen
 

After the Deluge, Pyrrha bore Deucalion, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, five children: Hellen (Ἕλλην), Amphictyon, Protogeneia, Pandora and Thyia.

Amphictyon became the king of Athens, after deposing Cranüs (Cranus), his father-in-law. Amphictyon ruled for twelve years before Erichthonius deposed him.

From Zeus or Aeolus, Protogeneia became the mother of Aëthlius (Aethlius) or possibly of Endymion (?). Her other sisters, were also seduced by Zeus. Pandora bore Graecus, eponym of the Greeks. Thyia became mother of Magnes and Macedon.

Hellen became the eponym of the Hellenes. Hellen married the nymph Orseïs (Orseis), who bore him three sons: Xuthus, Dorus eponym of the Dorians, and Aeolus, eponym of the Aeolians.

 
Related Information
Name
Hellen, Ἕλλην.

Eponyms
Hellen – Hellenes

Aeolus – Aeolians

Sources
Catalogues of Women was possibly written by Hesiod.

Library was written by Apollodorus.

Ion was written by Euripides.

Related Articles
Deluge, Deucalion, Aeolus, Xuthus.

Genealogy: Descendants of Deucalion.



Κρέουσα & Ἴων
Creusa and Ion
 

Xuthus was the son of Hellen and Orseïs (Orseis). Xuthus became the king of Iolcus. Xuthus was the father of Diomede, who married Deion, the son of Aeolus and the king of Phocis, and became the mother of Cephalus.

Xuthus had married Creüsa (Creusa or Κρέουσα), daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens. She was the mother of Achaeüs (Achaeus), eponym of the Achaeans, and Ion (Ἴων), eponym of the Ionians. According to play, Ion, Euripides says that Xuthus became king of Athens at the death of his father-in-law.

Some say that Xuthus was not the father of Ion, but that he was the son of Apollo and Creüsa. When she was young the god took her into a cave and raped her. She secretly gave birth to Ion before she abandoned infant in the same cave. She had him wrapped in cloth she had embroideries herself, and jewelled pins to hold the cloth together. But she soon regretted abandoning her son and returned to the cave, only to find that infant was gone.

Years later, Creüsa married Xuthus. The couple was desperate to have a child, and they went to Delphi. Xuthus was seeking if it was possible for them to have a child, while Creüsa wanted to know what happened to her own son whom she had abandoned in the cave.

There she met Ion at the temple, now a teenager, brought up by the priestesses and prophetesses. Creüsa told Ion she seeks on behalf of her friend why Apollo raped her friend and abandoning her when she was pregnant. Ion did not believe her story nor did he believe the god he worshipped was that cruel.

When Xuthus return to his wife, he told her that the priestesses decided to give the child Ion to Xuthus and Creüsa. At first Creüsa was jealous. But when the priestess gave Ion the cloth and pins, saying that they belonged to him, Creüsa instantly recognised them.

She told Ion the truth: that she was her mother and Apollo had forced himself on her. Ion thought she was mad, until she accurately described the cloth and pins.

Soon, the goddess Athena appeared and told Ion that he was indeed, Creüsa's son as well as Apollo. Ion happily went to Athens with her new parents.

According to Pausanias, Xuthus didn't rule Athens. Originally, Xuthus was king of Thessaly, but he took money that were common inheritance of all Hellen's sons, so Xuthus' brothers drove out of Thessaly. Xuthus settled in Athens and married Erechtheus' daughter, Creusa. When Erechtheus died, the sons of Erechtheus asked Xuthus to judge who should rule Athens; Xuthus chose Cecrops, Erechtheus' eldest son, as king. Cecrops' brothers, Pandorus and Metion, angrily drove Xuthus out of Athens.

Xuthus settled in Aegialeus, Achaea, with his wife, and Creusa bore him three sons – Achaeüs, Ion and possibly of Dorus; others say that Dorus was son of Hellen, therefore Xuthus' brother. Xuthus died in Aegialeus

Achaeüs returned to Thessaly with his followers to take the crown. Achaeüs had two sons, Archander and Architeles. His two sons married two daughters of Danaus in Argos.

Ion stayed in Achaea, where he married Helice, daughter of King Selinous. Ion founded a city, which he named after his wife. When Athens was at war against Eleusis, they asked Ion for aid. Ion died in battle, and the Athenians erected his tomb in the district of the Riverside, in Attica.

 
Related Information
Name
Xuthus, Xouthos, Ξουθος.

Creüsa, Creusa, Creousa, Κρέουσα.

Ion, Ἴων.
Eponyms
Ion – Ionians
Achaeüs – Achaeans

Sources
Catalogues of Women was possibly written by Hesiod.

Library was written by Apollodorus.

Ion was written by Euripides.

Related Articles
Hellen, Erechtheus.

Genealogy:
   House of Athens.
   Descendants of Deucalion.



Αἴολος
Aeolus
 

Aeolus (Αἴολος) became ruler in Thessaly after his father. Aeolus married Enarete (Ἐναρετη), daughter of Deïmacus (Deimacus), who bore him sons who became powerful rulers: Cretheus, king of Iolcus; Athamas, king of Orchomenus, in Boeotia; Sisyphus, king of Ephyra (Corinth); Salmoneus, king of Salmonia, in Elis; and Perieres, king of Messenia.

His other son, Deion (Δηι&974;ν), became king of Phocis. He was married to Diomede and was father of Actor (Ἄκτωρ), Aenetus, Asteropeia, Cephalus and Phylacus. Actor succeeded his father to the throne of Phocis after him.

Aeolus' daughter, Calyce, bored Endymion (Ἐνδυμίων) to her husband Aëthlius (Aethlius), son of Zeus or Aeolus and Protogeneia, daughter of Deucalion. Aeolus had his daughter Canace (Κανακε) committed suicide, after learning she had committed incest with her brother Macareus. Macareus also committed suicide.

Aeolus was also the lover of Hippo, daughter of the Centaur Cheiron (Χείρων). Aeolus was the father of Melanippe (Arne). Aeolus was killed by Melanippe's sons, in revenge for their mother's ill-treatment. See Melanippe.

 
Related Information
Name
Aeolus, Aiolos, Αἴολος.

Eponym
Aeolus – Aeolians

Sources
Catalogues of Women was possibly written by Hesiod.

Library was written by Apollodorus.

Related Articles
Cretheus, Salmoneus, Athamas, Sisyphus, Perieres.

Genealogy: Descendants of Deucalion.



Μελανίππη
Melanippe
 

Heroine of two lost plays of Euripides. Melanippe (Μελανίππη) was the daughter of Aeolus, king of Thessaly, and of Hippo, daughter of the Centaur Cheiron. Though, Hyginus also wrote that Melanippe's father could be Desmontes.

Melanippe grew into a young woman, whose beauty attracted the attention of the sea god, Poseidon. The unfortunate girl fell pregnant, and became the mother of twins. In a rage, Aeolus blinded his own daughter and confined her in his dungeon. Aeolus had his grandsons taken into the wild woods where they were exposed to die.

A cowherd found the twins suckled by a cow. The cowherd brought the infant to Queen Theano, wife of Metapontus, king of Metapontium. Theano, who had failed to give a child to Metapontus, pretended that these twins belonged them. So when Theano had finally bore two sons of her own, Metapontus thought that all four were his sons. Theano named the foundlings, Aeolus (the Younger) and Boeotus.

As the four boys grew, Theano feared that her real sons would be disinherited, because her husband preferred Aeolus and Boeotus than his own real sons. Theano plotted to have the sons of Melanippe killed. During a hunting trip, Theano's sons attacked Aeolus and Boeotus, but Poseidon was watching over his sons, and intervened. In the ensuing struggle, Theano's sons were killed.

The sea god revealed that he was their real father. Poseidon also informed them the fate of their mother. So Boeotus and Aeolus returned to Thessaly, and killed King Aeolus. They freed their mother and brought her back to Metapontus. Poseidon restored Melanippe's sight.

When Metapontus heard the entire truth about the true parentage of Aeolus and Boeotus and the conspiracy of his late wife, Metapontus married Melanippe and adopted the twins as his own sons. Aeolus and Boeotus became the eponymns of the Aeolians and Boeotians.

And Melanippe long suffering ended, and she lived happily ever after.

 
Related Information
Name
Melanippe, Μελανίππη – "Black Mare".
Arne.

Sources
Fabulae was written by Hyginus.

Related Articles
Aeolus, Cheiron, Poseidon.








  Tyro
  Pelias
  Acastus


Τυρώ
Tyro
 

King of Salmonia, in Elis, Salmoneus (Σαλμωνεύς) was the father of Tyro (Τυρώ) by Alicidice, daughter of Aleüs (Aleus), king of Arcadia. Not long after taking his second wife, Sidero (Σιδηρύ), Salmoneus found that her daughter bore twin sons, Neleus (Νηλεύς) and Pelias (Πελιάς), and left them to die in the forest. Not believing her tale that Poseidon had raped her, he gave his daughter to his wife Sidero, who cruelly mistreated her.

When the two sons had reach manhood and learned of their identities, and how Sidero had treated their mother, they freed their mother from her tormentor. Sidero fled and took refuge in Hera's temple. Even though Sidero clung to the altar or statue of Hera, Pelias murdered Sidero. By committing this sacrilege in her temple, he incurred Hera's enmity. It was this event, that would later cause Hera to set Jason (he was born yet) on the path that started the quest of the Golden Fleece. The quest was the mean for Hera to punish Pelias. (See Athamas, Pelias, Jason and the Argonauts about the quest of the Golden Fleece.)


Salmoneus was clearly quite deranged, when he claimed to be Zeus. He had pots tied to end of his chariot. Salmoneus thought the noises he made when he drove his chariot, sounded like thunders. Salmoneus also had rocks with lightning painted upon them, which he hurled at his citizens. For this blasphemy, Salmoneus was killed by real thunderbolt from Zeus.


Tyro married her uncle Cretheus (Κρηθεύς), king of Iolcus in Thessaly. Tyro bore him three sons: Aeson (Αἴσων), Amythaon and Pheres. When her husband died, Aeson being Cretheus' eldest son, should have inherited the throne from his father. However, her son by Poseidon, Pelias seized the throne and had his half-brother Aeson thrown into prison. But Aeson had a son, Jason, who was in the care of a wise Centaur, named Cheiron.

Tyro's other sons were driven from Iolcus. Pheres (Φέρης) founded and ruled the city of Pheres. Amythaon (Ἄμυθαων) migrated to Elis with his sons: Melampus and Bias. Later, Melampus and Bias settled in Argos where they shared the rule with Proëtus (Proetus).

Pelias even drove away his twin brother, Neleus, who also went to Elis, first, then later to Messene, in the court of his cousin, Aphareus (Ἀφαρ υς). Aphareus gave part of his kingdom to Neleus, who ruled the city of Pylos.

 
Related Information
Name
Salmoneus, Σαλμωνεύς.

Tyro, Τυρώ.

Cretheus, Κρηθεύς.

Sources
The Odyssey was written by Homer.

Library was written by Apollodorus.

Library of History was written by Diodorus Siculus.

Aeneid was written by Vergil.

Fabulae was written by Hyginus.

Contents
Tyro
Salmoneus

Related Articles
Aeolus, Pelias, Neleus, Melampus and Bias, Jason.

Genealogy: Aeolids 1: Thessaly



Πελιάς
Pelias
 

King of Iolcus. Pelias (Πελιάς) was the son of Tyro and Poseidon. Pelias was the twin brother of Neleus.

Pelias incurred Hera's enmity, when he murdered Sidero before her altar or statue. Hera sought her revenge, through Pelias' nephew, the hero Jason, son of Aeson. An oracle warned Pelias that an Aeolid (Jason) wearing a single sandal, would one day cause his death.

Pelias was known for violent rage and lust for power. When his mother's husband, Cretheus died, Pelias seized the throne from his half-brother, Aeson, and had him imprisoned. His other half-brothers were driven out of Iolcus, along with his twin-brother, Neleus. Neleus fled to Messenia, while Pheres founded a city in Thessaly. Amythaon and his family went to Elis.

Pelias had a son Acastus and many daughters by either Anaxibia or Phylomache. One of his daughters, Alcestis, married Admetus, son of his half brother, Pheres. See Heracles about the story of Admetus and Alcestis.


When Jason grew to manhood, he arrived in Iolcus, wearing only one sandal, and demanded that he had more right to the throne than his uncle, the usurper. Pelias tricked Jason, saying that he will give up the throne if Jason would fetch the Golden Fleece in Colchis, hoping that Jason would not survive this quest. Jason agreed.

Jason had Argus build the ship called Argo. Jason organised the crew and gathered heroes all over Greece to join in. The heroes who sailed Argo became known as the Argonauts. Even Pelias' son Acastus joined the Argonauts.

Jason returned to Iolcus, with his new wife, Medea, the Colchian sorceress. Jason's father, Aeson, was either, still in prison or murdered by Pelias. Jason asked Medea to help him kill Pelias.

Medea tricked Pelias' daughters by killing an old ram, cutting up the body and throwing them in a boiling cauldron. With her sorcery, Medea not only restored the ram back to life, but she also made ram young again. In the hope of restoring his youth, Pelias' daughters foolishly kill Pelias and tossed his body into the cauldron. Instead retoring Pelias' life and youth, Medea left Pelias' daughters as they kill their father. They realised to their horror that they had been duped into murdering their father. Acastus was outraged by this deeds, drove Jason and Medea out of Iolcus.


At his funeral, Acastus held the great games at Iolcus, in honour of Pelias. Many heroes, including a number of Argonauts, took part in the funeral games.

The four-horse chariot race was the most interesting of the game's events. Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, and king of Corinth, took part in the race. His horses were not only known for their speed, but for the fact that the king feed human flesh to his horses. Glaucus did this whenever he won a race, throwing the losers where his mares could feed on their flesh. Iolaus, the nephew and companion of Heracles, had won the chariot race, defeating Glaucus. Justice was done, and his own mares killed and devoured him.

Another interesting event in the games was the wrestling match. According to Apollodorus, Atalanta, the huntress, won the wrestling match, when she defeated Peleus. Though, Hyginus says that Peleus won the event (Fabulae 273), and there was no mention of Atalanta.

 
Related Information
Name
Pelias, Πελιάς.
His name came from livid mark (pelios) of his face, when a horse trampled on his face.

Sources
Argonautica, written by Apollonius of Rhodes.

Pythian IV was written by Pindar.

Description of Greece was written by Pausanias.

The Iliad and the Odyssey were written by Homer.

Theogony was written by Hesiod.

Related Articles
Tyro, Neleus, Acastus, Alcestis, Admetus, Jason, Medea.

Argonauts, Golden Fleece.

Genealogy: Aeolids 1: Thessaly


Jason and Pelias
Greek kratera, 350-340 BC
Musée du Louvre, Paris



´Ακαστυς
Acastus
 

Argonaut. Acastus was the son of Pelias and Anaxibia or Phylomachus.

Acastus joined his cousin, Jason in the quest for the golden fleece. When Medea tricked his sisters in murdering their father, Acastus drove Jason and Medea into exile for causing his father's death. He became king of Iolcus.

At his father's funeral, Acastus had invited many heroes of Greece to take part in the Games, perhaps the largest ever.

When another fellow Argonaut, Peleus, arrived in Iolcus. Acastus purified Peleus for the accidental killing of his father-in-law, Eurytion, during the Calydonian boar hunt.

While Peleus remained as guest in Iolcus, Astydameia or Hippolyte, Acastus' wife, however, fell in love with her husband's guest and tried to seduce Peleus. Peleus' rejected her, causing her to become enraged. In secret, Astydameia told her husband that Peleus had tried to violate her. Since the gods frown upon killing a guest, Acastus secretly plotted Peleus' death.

He took Peleus in a hunting trip. While Peleus slept in camp, Acastus stole Peleus' magic sword and hid it. Acastus then left the sleeping hero, defenceless in hostile territory of the Centaurs. But Peleus was rescued by friendly and wise Centaur named Cheiron, who helped him recovered the sword.

Peleus later returned to Iolcus with an army and aided by the heroes, Jason and the Dioscuri (Castor and Polydeuces). Peleus captured Iolcus, then killed Acastus and his lying wife. Acastus' son, Thessalus, succeeded his father (or he was possibly a son of Jason and Medea) and ruled Iolcus. Thessalus was the eponym of Thessaly.

 
Related Information
Name
Acastus, ´Ακαστυς.

Sources
Argonautica, written by Apollonius of Rhodes.

Nemean V and Pythian IV were written by Pindar.

Library and Epitome were written by Apollodorus.

Related Articles
Pelias, Jason, Medea, Peleus, Dioscuri.

Argonauts, Golden Fleece, Calydonian boar hunt.

Genealogy: Aeolids 1: Thessaly








The Aeolids who lived in Boeotia, had settled in the city of Orchomenus, a city north of another Boeotian city, Thebes. Orchomenus was the centre of the Minyan culture in the late Bronze Age, known for their distinctive pottery style, compared to the Mycenaean.

  Athamas       



Ἀθάμας
Athamas
 

King of Orchomenus. Athamas (Ἀθάμας) was the son of Aeolus and Enarete. The goddess Hera had arranged Athamas' first marriage to Nephele (Νεφέλη), who bore him a son and daughter, Phrixus (Φρίξος) and Helle (Ἥλλη).

Athamas, however, became tired of Nephele, and decided to marry Ino (Ἰνώ), daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Ino was jealous of Nephele's children and plotted to have her stepson kill.

When Athamas was about to his sacrifice Phrixus, the Golden Fleece that could fly saved the boy. The ram carried Phrixus and his sister away. The Hellespont was named after his sister, when Helle fell off the ram and drowned.

Phrixus finally reached Aea, in Colchis. Colchis was ruled by their king Aeëtes (Αἰήτης), son of Helius and Peresïs (Peresis) or Perse. Phrixus gave the ram to Aeëtes (Aeetes), which he sacrificed to Ares and left in the grove, guarded by a dragon. Phrixus married one of Aeëtes' daughters, who bore him several sons.

Some say that Aeëtes murdered Phrixus, when he found out in a prophecy: that a member of his family would betray him. Aeëtes never suspected his daughter Medea would betray him. See Jason and the Argonauts for the story of their voyage.


Athamas' other sons by Ino were killed by them. Hera send the Erinyes (Furies) against them, who inflicted them with madness, because Athamas abandoned his first wife (Nephele), and Ino for trying to hide Dionysus from her. Athamas shot Learchus down with an arrow, thinking his son was a deer. While Ino threw Melicertes (Μελικέρτης) over a cliff, drowning his son. According to the geographer Pausanias, a dolphin carried Melicertes to Corinth, where Sisyphus found and buried his nephew's body. Sisyphus had also established the Isthmian Games in honour to Melicertes.

In her grief, Ino also jumped into the sea, but she was changed into a minor sea-goddess. She was, however, transformed into a new sea-goddess, by Zeus, as a reward for helping him raised Dionysus, or by Poseidon at Aphrodite's request (Ino was Aphrodite's granddaughter). Melicertes also became minor sea god, named Palaemon (Παλαίμων).

Homer called Ino, Leucothea (Λευκοθέα, the "White Goddess"). It was Ino (Leucothea), who saved Odysseus from lrowning, when he left Calypso's island. Beside the road, between Oitylon and Thalamai, Pausanias reported that there is a sanctuary and an oracle of Ino. The person would ask whatever they want and then sleep. That person would then receive an answer from the goddess in that person's dream.


His people drove Athamas into exile for the killing of his own son. After long wandering he settled in Thessaly, where he married again, this time to Themisto, daughter of Hypseus, who was the king of the Lapiths. Themisto bore four sons to Athamas: Erythrius, Leucon, Ptoüs (Ptous) and Schoeneus.

In an alternative story, Athamas thought that Ino had died and taken another wife, but Ino, had in fact, joined her sisters in Bacchant cult in Thebes. Themisto knowing that her husband's second wife was still alive, decided to murder her two stepsons, because Themisto wanted her son to rule in succession to her husband. Instead, in the darkness Themisto unwittingly murdered her own two sons. Grief-stricken, when Themisto realised her mistake, she committed suicide.

 
Related Information
Name
Athamas, Ἀθάμας.

Nephele, Νεφελη.

Ino, ´Ινω.
Leucothea, Λευκοθεα – "White Goddess".

Contents
Aeolus, Argonauts

Related Articles
Ino, Leucothea, Argonauts.

Genealogy: Aeolids 2: Orchomenus








  Sisyphus
  Glaucus


Σίσυφος
Sisyphus
 

Sisyphus (Σίσυφος) was the king of Ephyra (Corinth). Aeolus was son of Aeolus and Enarete. He was the brother of Cretheus, Athamas, Perieres and Salmoneus. He married a Pleiad Merope, and became father of Glaucus (Glaucos), Ornytion, Thersander and Almus.

Sisyphus was responsible of establishing the Isthmian Games, held in honour to Melicertes, son of Athamas and Ino.


Sisyphus was famous for his cunning, and had the reputation to be the shrewdest mortal who ever lived. Sisyphus managed to recover the cattle stolen by the thief, Autolycus, and in revenge, ravished the thief's daughter, Anticleia.

Most writer say, that Odysseus was Sisyphus' son, not Anticleia's husband, Laërtes (Laertes), which was why Odysseus was so cunning due to his relationship with Sisyphus and his grandfather, Autolycus.

Though I find that Sisyphus being Odysseus' father rather doubtful and inconsistent with the timeframe. Since Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, Sisyphus had a direct descendant to the Lycian leader, Sarpedon, who had fought on the opposite side. Sarpedon is Sisyphus' great, great grandson. Sisyphus' grandson was also the hero Bellerophon, who was contemporary of Perseus. So Sisyphus couldn't be Odysseus' father.


When Zeus abducted Aegina, daughter of the river-god Asopus, and took her to the island, called Oenoe or Oenopia, but was named after Aegina. Sisyphus, who witnessed Aegina's abduction, told Asopus the whereabouts of his daughter. When the river-god tried to go after his daughter, Zeus had to drive Asopus away with his thunderbolts. See Aegina about her abduction.

Enraged by Sisyphus' interference, Zeus send Thanatos, the god of death, after the shrewd king. But for a while Sisyphus cheated death. Sisyphus had bound Thanatos in chains, so for a time no one died. Zeus had to later send Ares to free Thanatos. But even when Thanatos had taken Sisyphus to the Underworld, Hades send him back to the surface, since his wife Merope did not allow the proper funeral rites to be performed. Merope did so from Sisyphus' shrewd instruction. So Sisyphus lived to an old age, before he died.

Zeus punished Sisyphus in Tartarus, where he had to eternally push a large boulder uphill, only for the rock to roll back down when he neared the top. Sisyphus would then have to pushed the boulder uphill again. In the Odyssey, Homer doesn't reveal why Sisyphus was being punished.

Though, according to the Fabulae, Hyginus gives us a different reason for his punishment. There was a hostility between Sisyphus and his brother Salmoneus. Sisyphus went to the oracle of Apollo in Delphi, seeking to know a way to kill his brother. The oracle answered that the children of Tyro, Salmoneus' daughter, would be the instrument of Salmoneus' death.

So Sisyphus seduced or raped Tyro. Tyro became pregnant with twins. Tyro learning of the oracle, killed her own sons to prevent this from happening. Their deaths caused Sisyphus to act with impiety, which Sisyphus caused to be punished in Tartarus. What act of impiety is not clear.

Maybe, the clue is in Diodorus Siculus' work, Library of History, where Sisyphus used his skill in divination, where through inspection of his sacrificial victims, he discovered everything that will happened and revealed this mankind.

 
Related Information
Name
Sisyphus, Sisyphos, Σίσυφος.

Sources
Odyssey was written by Homer.

Catalogues of Women was possibly written by Hesiod.

Olympian VIII was written by Pindar.

Description of Greece was written by Pausanias.

Fabulae was written by Hyginus.

Library was written by Apollodorus.

Related Articles
Aeolus, Glaucus, Autolycus, Odysseus, Aegina, Aeacus, Zeus.

Genealogy: Aeolids 2: Corinth.



Γλαύκος
Glaucus
 

King of Ephyra (Corinth). Glaucus (Glaucos, Γλαύκος) was the son of Sisyphus and Merope, daughter of Atlas and Pleione (one of the Pleiades). Glaucus was the brother of Halmus, Ornytion and Thersander. He married Eurymede (Eurynome), daughter of Nisa, who bore him Bellerophon and Deliades.

However. In the Catalogues of Women, it was said that Zeus had cursed Glaucus, probably because of the god hatred for Glaucus' father, so that any child he bring up (from his wife) would not be his own. It was the sea god Poseidon who had secretly slept with Glaucus' wife, and she bore Bellerophon to the god.

Glaucus was famous for his cruelty, feeding his horses with human flesh. Refusing to allow his mares to breed, angered the goddess Aphrodite, who caused the them to go mad and trample him, before feeding upon his flesh, during the funeral game of Pelias.

Another account says that the mares devoured him, after he lost the chariot race against Iolaüs (Iolaus), nephew of Heracles, at the funeral games of Pelias.

 
Related Information
Name
Glaucus, Glaucos, Glaukos, Γλαύκος.

Related Articles
Sisyphus, Bellerophon.

Genealogy: Aeolids 2: Corinth.








  Perieres
  Aphareus
  Neleus
  Nestor      


Περιήρης
Perieres
 

Perieres (Περιήρης) was the son of Aeolus and Enarete. He was the brother of Cretheus, Athamas, Sisyphus and Salmoneus.

At the death of Polycaon, king of Messenia, people ask Perieres to rule the kingdom, since Polycaon had no son or heir. He lived in Andania with his wife, Gorgophone, daughter of Perseus.

Perieres was the father of Aphareus and Leucippus. His sons ruled Messenia at his death.

His wife Gorgophone then married Oebalus, son of Cynortas, and the king of Sparta. She had Tyndareüs (Tyndareus), Hippocoön (Hippocoon) and Icarius, and two daughters - Arene and Peirene.

 
Related Information
Name
Perieres, Περιήρης.

Related Articles
Aeolus, Aphareus, Gorgophone.

Genealogy: House of Messenia (Aeolids)



Ἁφαρεος
Aphareus
 

Aphareus was the son of Perieres and Gorgophone, the daughter of Perseus. Aphareus was the brother of Leucippus.

Aphareus married his cousin Arene (or should I say stepsister since they both have the same mother), and named the new city after his wife. She bore him the Messenian heroes – Idas and Lynceus.

When his cousin Pelias exiled Neleus from Iolcus (Thessaly), Aphareus gave Neleus land on the coast and the city of Pylus to rule. When the Dioscuri killed his sons, Aphareus had no son to succeed him. Aphareus gave his kingdom to his nephew Neleus.

 
Related Information
Name
Aphareus, Ἁφαρεος.

Arene, Ἁρηνη.

Related Articles
Perieres, Idas & Lynceus, Neleus.

Genealogy: House of Messenia (Aeolids)



Νηλεύς
Neleus
 

Neleus (Νηλεύς) was the son of Tyro and Poseidon, and the twin brother of Pelias. When Pelias drove him from Iolcus, Neleus migrated south, where he was warmly welcomed by his cousin, Aphareus.

Neleus received most of the coastal land in Messenia from his cousin Aphareus, and drove Pylas out from the city of Pylus. Neleus ruled Pylus and later all of Messenia when his cousin died. He had many sons (most say twelve, Homer knew of only three) and a daughter, Pero.

Pero had many suitors, among of them was Bias, his nephew, and brother of Melampus (Melampous). These two brothers who were also Aeolids, were the sons of his half-brother Amythaon and Idomene. Neleus told his daughter's suitors that the man who managed to steal the cattle of Phylacus, king of Phylace, would be able to marry his daughter.

Melampus, who was a famous seer, help his brother win Pero's by obtaining the cattle of Phylacus, by curing the Phylacus' son, Iphiclus (Ἴφικλος), of impotence. Bias married Pero and she bore Bias a son, Talaüs (Talaus).

After Pero death, Melampus and Bias left for Argos. Again, Melampus used his power as a seer to gain a share of the ruling of the kingdom with Proëtus.

When Neleus refused to purify Heracles for murder of Iphitus, Heracles later captured Pylus and killed him as well as all but his youngest son, Nestor. Nestor succeeded his father to the throne of Messene.

 
Related Information
Name
Neleus, Νηλεύς.

Related Articles
Tyro, Pelias, Nestor, Melampus, Heracles.

Genealogy: Aeolids 1: Messenia



Νέστωρ
Nestor
 

Nestor (Νέστωρ) was the youngest son of Neleus and Chloris, daughter of Amphion. He was the brother of Pero and Periclymenus and ten other brothers.

In his youth, Nestor took part in the cattle raid and war against Elis. He killed or wounded a hundred men. During the funeral games held for Amarynceus, Nestor won every contest except the chariot race, defeated by the Moliones.

Nestor also took part in the war against Centaurs during the wedding of Peirithoüs (Peirithous). Nestor was one of the wedding guests, including Theseus and Peleus. During the Trojan War, Nestor reminisced how he killed three Centaurs: Phaeocomes, Chthonius and Teleboas. In the Calydonian boar hunt, he barely escaped alive from the boar, where he was forced to climb on a tree.

Only Nestor survived the war between his father and brothers against Heracles. Nestor was staying in Gerenia at that time. Nestor became king of Messene, with Pylus as his capital. Nestor was sometimes a companion of Heracles, during some of his adventure.

Nestor went on to rule for three generations. When his sons – Antilochus and Thrasymedes – went to Troy as former suitors of Helen, Nestor accompanied them and brought ninety ships with him. Nestor was the oldest leader and fighter in Troy.

During the absence of Achilles from the fighting, the Greeks suffered from reversal of fortune. The Trojans aided by Zeus and Apollo caused the Greeks to retreat. One of his horses was killed in the retreat. Diomedes was the only hero to offer aid. Together, with Nestor driving the chariot, they drove the Trojans back and probably would have killed Hector, had Zeus not intervene by hurling thunderbolts three times. Nestor told the young Diomedes, not to anger the god and went back to the Greek camp.

Several times, during the Iliad, he recounts of his early adventures, in his youth. During the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon, Nestor tried to calm both sides. Nestor also reminisced, when he went along with Odysseus and Ajax the Greater, unsuccessfully tried to persuade Achilles to return to fighting.

After Hector's funeral, the Trojans received a second reinforcement, from Memnon, leader of the Aeithopians. Memnon forced the Greeks into a retreat. Again, Nestor's horses were either killed or wounded, but this time, his son Antilochus came to his father's aid. Antilochus, however, was no match for Memnon, and was killed. When Nestor tried to confront his enemy, Memnon refused to fight with an old man.

Distressed by his inability to avenge his son, he called upon Achilles to fight and avenge Antilochus. Achilles fought Memnon in single combat and killed the newcomer. This was however Achilles' last day. When Achilles was driving the Trojan back to the city, Achilles was killed by an arrow shot from Paris' bow. It was Apollo that guided the arrow to Achilles' vulnerable part, his heel.

According to the Roman mythographer, Hyginus wrote that Antilochus was killed by Hector, not Memnon; Hyginus did not give any detail about Antilochus. And Dares of Phrygia, Paris to ambush and kill Achilles and Antilochus at the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo (see Achilles about the alternative death of Achilles.

After the fall of Troy, Nestor returned safely home with his other son, Thrasymedes. Ten years later after his return, he was visited by Telemachus, son of Odysseus, who was seeking news of his father. Nestor told Telemachus that he had not seen the young man's father, since they left Troy. Nestor directed Telemachus to court of Menelaüs (Menelaus), in Sparta.

I could not find any reference to how Nestor died, but he probably passed away in old age.

It was not long after Nestor's death, when the Heraclids conquered the Peloponesse, including Messenia. The Heraclids divided Peloponesse among themselves, with Cresphontes, the son of Aristomachus, receiving Messenia. See Heraclids in Messenia.

 
Related Information
Name
Nestor, Νέστωρ.

Related Articles
Neleus, Calydonian boar hunt, Heracles, Achilles, Cresphontes.

Trojan War, Odyssey, Heraclids.

Genealogy: Aeolids 1: Messenia









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