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  Other Kingdoms


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Asia Minor


  Phrygia    
  Mysia
  Lydia
  Caria
  Lycia
  Cilicia
  Pontus & Bithynia




Φρυγία
Phrygia
 
 

Phrygia was a large region in the interior of Asia Minor (Anatalia). The boundary of Phrygia has changed many times over the centuries.

Historically, the Phrygians were a race of people who spoke an Indo-European language, called Phrygian. The main cities of Phrygia included Pessinus, Ancyra and Gordium. Gordium was founded by the legendary king, Gordius, while his famous son Midas founded Ancyra.

Phrygia also included the Troad, a region in the northwest of Asia Minor. The major city in Troad was Troy (Ilium). In the Trojan War, Phorcys, son of Phaenops, and Ascanius led the Phrgyian forces from the kingdom known as Ascania, as an ally of Troy. Telamonian Ajax killed Phorcys in battle.

 
Related Information
Name
Phrygia, Φρυγία.

Rulers
Otreus, Phorcys, Ascanius.
Gordius, Midas.




Τρία
Troy
 

Troy was a Phrygian city on the Troad. Troy was often called Ilium. See Houses of Troy for more detail.

Geographically, Troy control the Hellespont (Dardanelles), the narrow strait that is the entrance from the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara, follow by another strait the Bosporus to the Black Sea. Strategically, controlling this strait, control the maritime trade route of the Aegean to the Black Sea, where they can extract tolls on ships.

Troy is located on the hill or mound called Hisarlik, which in myth was built on top of the hill, called Ate. Separating the city from Aegean shore line, where the Agamemnon's fleet had supposed beached, is the plain, and the Scamander River (now called Canakkale).

Ilus, son of Tros, founded Troy and named the city after himself, Ilium or Ilion (Ἰλιον), but it was better known as Troy. He left his brother Assaracus to rule Dardania, a much older city than Troy. When his son, Laomedon, succeeded him, Troy became more powerful and dominant of the two cities, since it can control the trade route of the Hellepont.

The gods, Poseidon and Apollo built the walls of Troy, with the aid of a mortal named Aeacus, son of Zeus and Aegina, and the king of the island Aegina. The city has two main gates: the Scaean Gates and the Dardan Gates (or Dardanian Gates). The main centre of the city was the citadel, called Pergamum.

Troy was however captured by Heracles (and Telamon), when Laomedon refused to honour his bargain with the hero. Laomedon and all his sons, except Priam (Podarces), were killed. Priam succeeded his father. Priam was the last king of Troy, after a ten years war against the Greeks. See Trojan War for full story of the war.

See the family tree of the House of Troy and Dardania.

Archaeologically, the city ruins was rediscovered in the 2nd half of the 19th century, by a German archaeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, who had excavated Hisarlik. What he had discovered was that there are successive levels, where the city was rebuilt 9 times, on top of one another as early as the Early Bronze Age. Each level of the city was designated with a Roman numeral, eg. Troy I, Troy II, Troy III, etc.

Troy VI was built during the Middle Bronze Age and Troy VII in the Late Bronze Age. Schliemann believed that Troy VI was Homer's Troy, but this city was destroyed by earthquake around 1300 BC, not by war. Troy VI was richer than its next successors, Troy VIIa and then Troy VIIb. Troy VIIa was destroyed by fire, and possibly by violence.

 
Related Information
Name
Troy, Τρία;
Ilion, Ἰλιον (Greek), Ilium (Latin).

Founder
Ilus

Rulers
Ilus, Laomedon, Priam.



Δάρδανια
Dardania
 

Dardania was a Phrygian city situated on the foot of Mount Ida. Dardania had a close relationship with Troy. During the reign of Laomedon, Troy became the more powerful city of the two cities. However, the House of Dardania was much older by few generations.

Dardanus, son of Zeus and the Pleiade Electra founded the city of Dardania. He married Bateia, daughter of Teucer. Dardanus' descendants divided the family into two separate houses between the sons of Tros: Assaracus ruled Dardania, while Ilus founded a new city, which named Ilium or Troy. (See House of Troy for more details about Dardania.)

During the Trojan War, Aeneas, son of Anchises, became the last king of Dardania. He was the one of the leader to escape the fall of Troy. According to Roman myth, Aeneas migrated to Latium, Italy. He became the ancestor of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome.

See the family tree of the House of Troy and Dardania.

 
Related Information
Name
Dardania, Δάρδανια.

Founder
Teucer

Rulers
Teucer(?), Dardanus, Erichthonius, Tros, Assaracus, Capys, Anchises, Aeneas.




Μυσία
Mysia
 
 

Mysia was a large region of northwestern coast of Asia Minor.

Chromis and Ennomus the Auger were leaders of the Mysians in the Trojan War. Ennomus was among those Trojans and allies who were killed in the river, by Achilles.

The principal cities of Mysia were:

 
Related Information
Name
Mysia, Μυσία.

Rulers
Chromis, Ennomus




Κύζικος
Cyzicus
 

Cyzicus was a city in northern Mysia, situated on the coast of Sea of Marmara. It was named after the king of Doliones, who was accidentally killed by the Argonauts.

 
Related Information
Name
Cyzicus, Κύζικος.

Founder
Cyzicus

Rulers
Cyzicus.



Τεύθρανια (Πέργαμος)
Teuthrania (Pergamon)
 

Teuthrania was a Mysian city, located on the river Caïcus. A man named Teuthras founded Teuthrania. Teuthras married Auge, daughter of Aleüs, who was already pregnant by Heracles' son. Heracles had raped Auge during his stay in Tegea. Auge bore Telphus, whom Teuthras had adopted. Telephus succeeded Teuthras.

During the war against Troy, the Greeks accidentally landed and attacked Teuthrania, assuming they were attacking Troy. Achilles wounded Telphus in the fighting. The Greeks agreed to heal Telphus' wound in exchange for guiding the Greek fleet to Troy. Telphus agreed. Telphhus however would not fight with the Greeks against Troy since he was a son-in-law of Priam.

In the last year of the war, Priam managed to induce Eurypylus, son of Telphus (promising to pay Eurypylus with gold vine), to help the Trojans with the war. After killing Machaon and Peneleüs, Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, killed Eurypylus.

During the reign of Areius, Pergamus, son of Neoptolemus, who migrated from Epeirus, captured Teuthrania. Pergamus renamed Teuthrania to Pergamon (Πέργαμος or Pergamum).

 
Related Information
Name
Teuthrania, Τεύθρανια;
Pergamon, Pergamum, Πέργαμος (classical).

Founder
Teuthras

Rulers
Teuthrania, Telephus, Areius, Pergamus.




Λυδία
Lydia
 
 

Lydia was region between Mysia and Caria, in Asia Minor. The region was named after Lydus, son of Attis.

Lydia was the kingdom where Queen Omphale ruled, after the death of her husband, Tmolus, who was king of Lydia. Omphale was a daughter of Iardanos. Heracles had to serve Omphale as slave for 3 years, to atone for the murder of Iphitus.

During his servitude, Heracles aided Omphale in ridding her enemies and monsters. The Cercopes were dwarfish ape-like or monkey-like men, who delighted in knavery. According to Apollodorus, they were captured and killed Heracles, but according to the short fragmented poem, The Cercopes, either they escape from Heracles or the hero released them, after capturing them in Thessaly. Zeus turned them into stones later, because they tried to deceive the god.

The principal city in Lydia was:

 
Related Information
Name
Lydia, Λυδία.

Founder
Lydus

Rulers
Lydus, Tmolus, Omphale.




Σάρδεις
Sardis
 

Sardis (Sardes) was the principal city of Lydia. It was located on the river of Patroclus, east of Smyrna.

No myths were attached to this city. However, historically Herodotus tells us that Sardis was the capital of Croesus, the Lydian king who was defeated by the Persians in 6th century BC. Legend says that, at that time Croesus was one of the richest kings in the world.

 
Related Information
Name
Sardis, Sardes, Σάρδεις.

Rulers
Croesus.




Καρία
Caria
 
 

Caria was a coastal region in southwestern Asia Minor, bordered by Lydia in the north and Lycia in the west. The Carians were probably related to the Lelegians.

The most notable city in Caria was:

The only myth I know concerning about Caria or the Carians was that Nastes, king of Caria, who aided Troy in the war against the Greeks. Nastes and Amphimachus, the sons of Nomion, led the Carian contingents, against the Greeks. The people spoke strange language, and the king had a habit of wearing lot of gold on himself.

Achilles killed Nastes in the fighting at the river. Achilles took away all the gold from the Carian king.

 
Related Information
Name
Caria, Καρία.

Rulers
Nastes




Μίλητος
Miletus
 

A coastal city in Caria, it was originally named Anactoria. Historically, Miletus became an important Ionian city-state but fell into Persia's dominion.

Miletus was the son of Apollo and Deione or Acacallis. The three sons of Europa were in love with a youth named Miletus. When the Cretan youth chose Sarpedon, Minos drove both of his brothers and Miletus from Crete. They fled to Asia Minor, where Sarpedon went to Lycia while Miletus stayed in Caria. Miletus captured Anactoria and renamed the town after himself.

 
Related Information
Name
Anactoria (original);
Miletus, Μίλητος.

Rulers
Miletus.



Λυκία
Lycia
 
 

Lycia was a region of southern Asia Minor, east of Caria.

Several different tribes resided in Lycia; these included the Milyans or Solymi.


The Cretans under the leadership of Sarpedon, son of Zeus and Europa, settled in the coastal area of Lycia, when his brother Minos drove him out of Crete, because of a youth named Miletus. The Cretan settlers were called Termilae. Sarpedon shared the rule of Lycia with another exiled prince from Athens, named Lycus. Lycus was the brother of Aegeus, and the whole region was renamed to Lycia.

The Corinthian hero, named Bellerophon, arrived from Argos, and became guest of Iobates, king of Lycia. Bellerophon fought successful wars against the Solymi and Amazons. Impressed by the young man's prowess, Iobates married his daughter Philonoë to the great hero.

Bellerophon became the father of Isander, Hippolochus, Laodameia and Deïdameia. Sarpedon's son, Evander, married Deïdameia, and became father of another Sarpedon, while Hippolochus was the father of Glaucus. Glaucus and Sarpedon distinguished themselves during the Trojan War. Both leaders died at Troy.

See the family tree of the Aeolids in Lycia.

 
Related Information
Name
Lycia, Λυκία.

Rulers
Sarpedon and Lycus (co-rulers); Iobates, Evander, Hippolochus; Glaucus and Sarpedon (co-rulers?).





Κιλικία
Cilicia
 
 

Cilicia was a region in southeastern Asia Minor. Cilicia's neighbours included Lycia in the west while sharing the eastern border with Syria.

Cilicia was named after Cilix, who was the son of Agenor of Sidon. Cilix was the brother of Cadmus and Europa. Agenor sent all his sons to search for their sister, after her abduction. Cilix settled in Cilicia, while Cadmus continued his search for Europa. (See House of Thebes)

Cilicia was also the birthplace of the fearsome monster, Typhon, offspring of Gaea and Tartarus.

 
Related Information
Name
Cilicia, Κιλικία.

Founder
Cilix

Rulers
Cilix.




Pontus & Bithynia
 
 

Bithynia was a region in northwestern Asia Minor on the coasts of Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. The Sangarius River flow through Bithynia before it emptied itself into the Black Sea.

To the east of Bithynia was the region known as Pontus (Πόντος). The border between these two territories had changed over the centuries.

 
Related Information
Name
Pontus, Πόντος.

Bithynia.



Θεμίσκυρα
Themiscyra
 

Themiscyra was the principal city of the Amazons, where it was located on the Thermodon River that emptied into the Black Sea. Themiscyra is now called Termeh.

Amazons were a tribe of warrior women, said to have originated from Central Asia, and once thought to be related to the Sarmatians. The heroes Heracles had to fetch a girdle from Queen Hippolyte as one of his labours. Theseus had married Hippolyte's sister, Antiope, who became the mother of Hippolytus. Theseus defeated the Amazons when they invaded Attica.

At Hector's death, during the Trojan War, Penthesileia came to the Trojans' aid and were successful in driving the Greeks back. However in the fighting Penthesileia was killed by Achilles.

 
Related Information
Name
Themiscyra, Θεμίσκυρα;
Termeh (modern).

Rulers
Hippolyte, Antiope, Penthesileia.





Other Kingdoms

 
Colchis
Phoenicia
Egypt
Libya




Κολχίς
Colchis
 
 

Colchis was a region on East Coast of the Black Sea. Aea was the capital of Colchis, probably situated near the mouth of Phasis River.

Aeëtes was the ruler of Colchis. Aeëtes was the son of Helius and Perseïs (Perse), and brother of Circe and Pasiphaë. Aeëtes seemed to be a practitioner of sorcery, like his sister Circe. He had a son named Apsyrtus and two daughters: Chalciope who had married Phrixus, son of Athamas, and Medea, the sorceress and high priestess of Hecate. See the family tree of Helios.

Medea betrayed him, when she aided Jason in his quest, even to point where she murdered her brother. Medea fled from Colchis with Jason, whom she later married.

According to the historian Diodorus Siculus, Helius' children and grandchildren were arranged different than what it is commonly known by other authors. With Diodorus, Helius had alternatively being the father of two sons, Aeëtes and Perses. Perses was the king of Tauric Chersonese, and the father of Hecatê. Instead of Hecate being a goddess, she was a sorceress and priestess of Artemis, the goddess of magic. Hecatê married her uncle, Aeëtes, and became the mother of Circê, Medea and Aegialeus. See the alternative family tree of Helius.

Diodorus explained Aeëtes' cruelty to foreigners, where he had them sacrificed, because the man who steals the Golden Fleece would cause his death. When Jason stole the Fleece with the aid of Medea, Aeëtes pursued them to the beach. During the fighting, the young hero Meleager slew Aeëtes.

According to Apolldorus, however, after the Argonauts escaped, Aeëtes' brother, Perses, king of the Taurians had deposed him. When Medea returned home, a couple of decades later, she killed her uncle Perses, and restored her father to the throne.

 
Related Information
Name
Colchis, Κολχίς.

Founder
Aeëtes

Rulers
Aeëtes.




Φοινίκη
Phoenicia
 
 

Phoenicia was a narrow coastal region of Canaan. Phoenicia was famous for their skilled and brave merchant sailors, where they founded cities as far west as north-west Africa and southern coast of Spain.

Phoenicia was named after Phoenix, son of Agenor and Telephassa or Argiope, and brother of Cadmus and Europa.

There were three Phoenician important cities that appeared in classical myths:

 
Related Information
Name
Phoenicia, Φοινίκη.

Rulers
Agenor, Phoenix.




Βύβλος
Byblus
 

Byblus was an ancient coastal city of northern Phoenicia. Byblus or Byblos is now called Jubayl. It was once famous for its export of timber to Egypt.

 
Related Information
Name
Byblus, Byblos, Βύβλος (Greek),
Gebal (Phoenician).
Jubayl (modern).



Σιδώνα
Sidon
 

Sidon was an ancient coastal city of Phoenicia, perhaps the oldest of the Phoenician cities. Sidon is now called Sayda. The Greeks often confused Sidon with Tyre, its southern neighbour. Sidon was renowned for its export of glassware and purple dye, called Sidonian Purple.

Agenor, son of Libya and Poseidon, founded and ruled the city of Sidon in Phoenicia (Canaan). Agenor migrated to Canaan leaving his twin brother Belus to ruled Egypt. When Zeus abducted his daughter, Europa, he sent sons to find her. Not of them return. Each son had migrated to other lands, founding kingdoms. Cadmus, Europa's brother migrated as far as central Greece, founding Cadmeia, which was later called Thebes. Whereas Agenor's other son Phoenix did not went very far, his name became eponym of Phoenicia.

 
Related Information
Name
Sidon, Σιδώνα (Greek)
Sydwn (Phoenician);
Sayda (modern)

Founder
Agenor

Rulers
Agenor, Phoenix.



Τύρος
Tyre
 

Tyre (modern Sur) was a principal coastal city of southern Phoenicia. The Greeks often confused Tyre with Sidon, its northern neighbour. Sidon was a colony of Sidon. Its city was built on the island and the mainland. Like Byblus, it was famous for its export of timber to Egypt. Later, it became more dominant of the Phoenician cities.

Tyre was possibly the home of Cadmus and Europa. It was also the home of Dido. When her brother, Pygmalion, king of Tyre murdered her husband, Dido fled west and migrated to northern Africa, where she founded the city of Carthage. In Carthage, Dido would later meet Aeneas, a Trojan prince, who fled from Troy after it was sacked.

 
Related Information
Name
Tyre, Τύρος;
Sur (modern).

Rulers
Agenor(?), Pygmalion.




Αίγυπτος
Egypt
 
 

Egypt was ancient kingdom ruled by their kings known as Pharoahs. Cities were built mostly along the river Nile and the Delta Nile.

Io was the daughter of the river-god Inachus. Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus, had persecuted Io, driving her out of her home. Zeus had turned into a cow and was driven from Argolis to Egypt, where Zeus transformed her back to human and seduced her. Io bore a son named Epaphus to Zeus. She married Telegonus, king of Egypt.

Her son succeeded her husband as king of Egypt. Her great-grandson, Belus, succeeded Epaphus. Belus was in turn, succeeded by Aegyptus. The land was named after Aegyptus (Egypt), after Aegyptus conquered the Melampodes, a northern Africa.

 
Related Information
Name
Aigyptos, Αίγυπτος (Greek); Aegyptus (Latin); Egypt (modern).

Kemet – "Black Land" (Egyptian).

Rulers
Telegonus, Epaphus, Belus, Aegyptus.




Μέμφις
Memphis
 

Memphis was an ancient city of the Lower Nile.

Epaphus, king of Egypt, founded the ancient city of Memphis, which he named after his wife, daughter of river-god Nile. Memphis bore Epaphus a daughter named Libya.

 
Related Information
Name
Memphis, Μέμφις (Greek);
Ineb Hedj – "The White Walls" (Egyptian).

Founder
Epaphus

Rulers
Epaphus, Belus, Aegyptus.




Λιβύη
Libya
 
 

Libya was a large region, west of Egypt, in northern Africa. This included to the present day Libya, including modern Morocco, in the West. The region was named after Libya, the daughter of Epaphus, king of Egypt, and Memphis, daughter of the river god Nile. Libya was also the granddaughter of Io, who had migrated to Egypt in the form of a cow.

At the Atlas Mountains was the home of the Titan Atlas, where he carried the burden of heaven upon his shoulders. It was also the home of Hesperides, where golden apples were kept in garden, guarded by the nymphs and a dragon called Ladon.


Perseus went through here, when he went to find the Gorgon Medusa. Heracles also came to the garden of Hesperides to fetch the golden apples as part of his labours.

Jason and the Argonauts became stranded in the Libyan Desert. The heroes had to portage the ship all the way to Lake Tritonis. There they found the garden of Hesperides. The nymphs aided the heroes in finding water. Lake Tritonis was however, salty, and unsuitable for drinking. However, the Hesperides told the Argonauts that Heracles had just left the garden, a few days ago. Heracles had kicked a boulder, causing the spring water to gush from it. Thus, Heracles had unwittingly saved his former crew members.

It was the sea god Triton, who rescued the Argonauts, by pulling the Argo, back to the open sea.

In the Odyssey, Odysseus also landed in Libya, where he met the Lotus-eaters. If the flower lotus were eaten, they would forget their past lives. Their only desires were to stay where they were and eat some more of the addicted flowers.

The most prominent cities in classical mythology:

 
Related Information
Name
Libya, Λιβύη.

Founder
Libya




Κυρήνη
Cyrene
 

Cyrene was a coastal city in Libya. It was named after the Thessalian nymph named Cyrene. Historically, Cyrene was a Greek colony, which became the major city in Libya.

Cyrene was the daughter of Hypseus, a Lapith king in Thessaly. Cyrene was renowned for beauty and strength. Cyrene was probably an attendant of Artemis, and she was renowned for her skill in hunting. Apollo fell in love with Cyrene when he saw her wrestled with a lion.

Apollo spirited the nymph across the sea to Libya, where the god seduced her and Cyrene bore a son named Aristaeüs (Aristaeus), who became a minor agricultural god, and Idmon, who was a warrior seer and an Argonaut. Apollo gave Cyrene a long life as compensation for taking her son away.

In Libya, she was said to have founded a city called Cyrene.

 
Related Information
Name
Cyrene, Κυρήνη.



Καρχηδών
Carthage
 

Carthage was a Phoenician city in North Africa, which is located near the modern city of Tunis. The original name of the city was probably Byrsa (the "citadel").

Carthage was said to be founded by Dido, sometimes called Elissa, Phoenician queen in Tyre. There is some confusion over who her father was. Dido fled with her sister Anna from Tyre, when her brother Pygmalion murdered her husband Sychaeus (she had actually married her uncle).

When Aeneas landed in Carthage, Venus (Aphrodite) made Dido fall in love with her son (Aeneas). Aeneas would have marry Dido, but the messenger god Mercury (Hermes) had to tell Aeneas that he was not fated to marry Dido and live in Carthage, because his new home was in Italy. When Aeneas left Carthage, Dido was so devastated that she committed suicide. As Aeneas' ships sailed away from the city, the hero saw the burning of a large funeral pyre.

Later on, Aeneas met her shade in the Underworld, where she was reunited with her husband (Sychaeus) and she refused to acknowledge Aeneas' presence; apparently she had not forgiven him for leaving her.

Most of the legend about Aeneas and Dido come from the Roman epic, the Aeneid, written by Vergil, and the poem called Metamorphoses by Ovid. Though, it was believed that in an earlier Roman source, Dido killed herself in a funeral pyre in order to escape the marriage to Iarbas or Hirbal, a Libyan king who would invade Carthage if the queen did not marry him. Obviously, Vergil changed the legend to suit his epic. (See the Aeneid about Aeneas and Dido.)

Historically, Carthage was a great maritime city, known for its navy. Also, Carthage was a city-state, governed by the system of oligarchy, not ruled by a monarch. The Carthaginians founded cities in Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Spain.

Their traditional enemies were the Greek cities in Sicily, including Syracuse, as well as the enemy of Rome. Carthage and Rome were involved in three wars, known as the Punic Wars. Hannibal was the most distinguished general in the Second Punic War, who defeated several Roman armies in Italy, but finally lost the war in the Battle of Zama, a site south-east of Carthage, in 202 BC.

 
Related Information
Name
Carthage, Carthago (Latin);
Καρχηδών (Greek).

Founder
Dido

Rulers
Dido.



Cherronesus
 

Cherronesus was the legendary city of the Amazons, located somewhere in western Libya. Most of the (scarce) details about the city come from Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian in Sicily, who flourished in the 1st century BC.

Under the rule of their queen, Myrina, she drove out a rival race of woman warriors known as the Gorgons out of their territory. She conquered several territories in the West, such as in Asia Minor, and founded the city of Mitylene in the island of Lesbos.

The surviving Amazons returned to Libya, after the death of Myrina and their defeat at the hands of the Thracians and Scythians in Asia Minor.

 
Related Information
Name
Cherronesus

Rulers
Myrina.









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