Peloponnesus

Peloponnesus (Πελοπόυησος) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, connected to the mainland Greece via the Isthmus of Corinth. This page list the prominent regions and cities known in Greek mythology.

  Isthmus
  Sicyonia
  Argolis
  Achaea
  Elis
  Arcadia
  Laconia
  Messenia


Lion hunting scene
Mycenaean Inlaid Dagger
Bronze Age, Mycenae



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Isthmus
 
 

The Isthmus of Corinth joined the Peloponessus to mainland Greece. The Isthmus also separated the Gulf of Corinth in the north, from Saronic Gulf in the south.

Two major cities have mythological stories:

 
Related Information
Name
Isthmus of Corinth, Isthmia.

Corinthia, Κορινθία.




Κόρινθος
Corinth
 

The city of Corinth was situated on the coast of Corinthian Gulf, at the western side of the isthmus. Corinth was originally called Ephyra, and the region around Corinth was called Ephyraea. The citadel in Corinth was called Acrocorinth.

The city was founded by the sun god Helius and left to his son, Aeëtes. However, Aeëtes left Corinth for Colchis. Bunus ruled in his place. Corinthus had renamed Ephyra to Corinth. The most famous ruler of Corinth, as well as the most notorious ruler was Sisyphus, son of Aeolus. (See Aeolids in Corinth for the family tree).

According to Pausanias, Helius and Poseidon vied over the city as patron god of the city. Either Briareus, one of the Hundred-Handed acted as judge or the citizens who feared to offend either god voted on the issue. However they elected, it was decided that Poseidon would received Isthmia or Isthmus and Helius recieved the Acrocorinth. Both gods were worshipped in Corinth.

See the Aeolids in Corinth, for the history of the city of Corinth.


Historically, Corinth was known for as a cultural and commercial centre, where it does most of its trade in the west. Colonists from Corinth had founded the city of Syracuse in Sicily, in 734 BC.

In the 7th century BC, Periander, son of Cypselus, succeeded his father as tyrant of Corinth. Periander was listed as one of the Seven Wise Men. It was during Periander's reign that Corinth enjoyed the greatest height, commercially and culturally, but he was a ruthless despot. He had established a rich trade with Lydia and Egypt. Corinthian painting on pottery was much sought after. Periander, himself, had written some verses.

Periander was also known as the patron of the poet and singer, Arion of Lesbos. Arion was said to have invented the style of choral poem, known as the dithyramb. The historian Herodotus wrote of the legend of their friendship.

Arion had decided to travel to Italy and Sicily, where he was awarded a great deal of money from competing in music contests. The captain and his crew of a Corinthian ship were supposed to return him to Corinth, but they decided to rob Arion of his winnings.

At sea, Arion discovered of their intention to kill and rob him. Arion had offered to give all his money if they would spare him, but they refused. The captain, however, agreed to Arion's last request, which was to play one last song.

So Arion dressed in his costume and went to the prow of the ship, where he played his lyre and sung his last song. Before the song ended, Arion leaped overboard into the sea. The captain thought that the singer would eventually drown since his ship was from the sight of land. So the ship sailed away, heading towards Corinth.

But fate was kind to the singer, because a dolphin nearby was enchanted by Arion's music, rescued him. Arion rode on its back, as the dolphin swam all the way to Taenarum, in the Peloponnese. Arion then walked all the way to Corinth, ahead of the ship of villainous crew. Arion informed the tyrant of their treachery.

Later, when the ship arrived, Periander questioned the captain about Arion, who assured him that the singer was still in Tarentum (in southern Italy). The crew were terrified when they saw the singer appearing in the same costume that he was wearing when he jumped overboard. They admitted to guilt of robbing and attempting to kill Arion, so the captain and his entire crew were executed.

The Roman mythographer, Hyginus, also wrote of Arion's adventure, says that Apollo immortalised the dolphin for saving the singer, by placing the constellation of the dolphin in the sky, called Delphinus.

 
Related Information
Name
Ephyra, Ephyre, Εφυρη;
Corinth, Κόρινθος.

Acrocorinth (citadel).

Founder
Helius (sun-god)

Rulers
Aeëtes, Bunus, Epopeus, Corinthus, Creon(?), Medea, Sisyphus, Glaucus, Thoas, Aletes (Heraclid).



Μέγαρα
Megara
 

Megara was a city situated on east side of the Isthmus of Corinth, a seaport to the Saronic Gulf. Its citadel was called Nisa.

The city was founded by Car, son of Phoroneus. Later, Lelex, a descendant of Io, established a dynasty that ruled Megara, until Alcathoüs, a Pelopid took over. Alcathoüs' grandson, Ajax (son of Telamon), received the kingdom, during the time of the Trojan War.

The Aeolid Pylas ruled Megara, until he had accidentally killed his uncle, Bias. Pylas went into exile in Messenia where he founded a new kingdom, which he named Pylos, after himself. He left Megara to his son-in-law, Pandion, a former king of Athens, who had married Pylas' daughter Pylia.

See the family trees of the House of Pelops and the Aeacids.

 
Related Information
Name
Megara, Μέγαρα.

Nisa (citadel).

Founder
Car

Rulers
Car; some generations later, Lelex; then Cleson, Pylas, Pandion, Nisus, Megareus, Alcathoüs, Ajax.




Σικυώνια
Sicyonia
 
 

Sicyonia was a region north of Argolis and east of the Isthmus. The region was originally called Asopia or Aegialeia, before it was changed to Sicyonia, by Sicyon. The principal city of Sicyonia was:

 
Related Information
Name
Asopia, Ἀσοπία
Aegialeia
Sicyonia, Σικυών




Σικυών
Sicyon
 

Sicyon was situated on the west coast of the Gulf of Corinth, a city of the Sicyonia.

The only story of note was during the reign of Epopeus, when he married the girl Antiope, mother of Amphion and Zethus. Her father, Nycteus (regent of Thebes), went to war against Sicyon and demanded his daughter's return. Epopeus and Nycteus died in the fighting. The Sicyonians decided to hand over Antiope to her uncle, Lycus.

 
Related Information
Name
Sicyon, Σικυών.

Rulers
Aegialeus, Apis, Corax, Epopeus, Lamedon, Sicyon, Polybus, Ianiscus, Phaestus, Zeuxippus, Hippolytus, Lacestades, Phalces (Heraclid).

Alternatively, Helius (sun-god), Alöeus, Epopeus, Marathon, Sicyon, etc.




Ἄργολίς
Argolis
 
 

Argolis was the northeast region of the Peloponnesus. The region was a rich source of myths, with several powerful kingdoms within the region. Historically, Mycenae was the most powerful kingdom during the middle and late Bronze Age, while Argos was the oldest city in the region. The Mycenaean empire extended as far as Cyprus.

Argolis was ruled by several great families: the descendants of Inachus (Inachids), which included the Perseids (descendants of Perseus) in Tiryns and Mycenae; Proëtus and his descendants (Proetids), who shared power with the Aeolids in Argos; and the Pelopids (descendants of Pelops).

The major cities of Argolis were:

Other cities include Nemea, Lerna and Epidarus.

Geneaology:
   Early Houses of Argos
   Houses of Proëtus and the Aeolids
   Houses of Perseus
   House of Atreus

 
Related Information
Name
Argolis, Ἄργολίς; Argolid, Αργολίδα.

Founder
Inachus




Ἄργος
Argos
 

The city of Argos was situated in the valley of Argolis on the Gulf of Argolis. It situated beside the river Inachus. The citadel in Argos was called Larisa.

The city was originally called Phoronea, by it founder Phoroneus, son of the river god Inachus. It was changed to Argos by Argus, grandson of Phoroneus.

Descendants of Io, daughter of Incachus, later ruled Argos, when Danaüs fled from Egypt and established a powerful dynasty in the region. The twin brothers, Acrisius and Proëtus divided Argolis between them, Acrisius taking Argos while Proëtus received Tiryns.

When Perseus accidentally killed his grandfather Acrisius, he exchanged kingdom with his great-uncle, Proëtus, exchanging Argos for Tiryns. Proëtus was king of Argos when Bellerophon, and later Melampus and Bias, came to his kingdom. Since Melampus cured the madness from two of his three daughters, Proëtus had no choice but shared his kingdom with his two new son-in-laws.

The Greeks who fought in Troy in Homer's Iliad, were sometimes known collectively as Argives (Ἀργεῖοι), but it was more common to referred the Greeks as Danaans (Δαναοι) or Achaeans (ῖχαιοί).

The descendants of Proëtus, Melampus and Bias, fought in the ill-fated war against Thebes, called the Seven Against Thebes and later the more successful war of the Epigoni. During the Trojan War, the hero Diomedes was leader of Argive forces, bringing with him eighty ships to Troy.

During the reign of Orestes in Mycenae, Orestes seized Argos from Cylarbes. Orestes was the son of Agamemnon and descendant of Pelops.

Read the Houses of Argolis, about the families who ruled Argos.

For genealogy, see Early House of Argos and House of Argos.

 
Related Information
Name
Phoronea;
Argos, Ἄργος.

Founder
Phorenus

Rulers
Phorenus, Apis, Argus, Phorbas, Triopas, Pelasgus(?), Agenor(?), Gelanor, Danaüs, Lynceus, Abas, Acrisius, Proëtus, Bias, Melampus, Megapenthes, Anaxagora, Alector, Talaüs, Iphis, Adrastus, Cyanippus, Cylarbes, Orestes, Tisamenus, Temenus (Heraclid), Ceïus.



Τίρυνς
Tiryns
 

Tiryns was a city in the valley of Argolis, east of Argos. Tiryns, son of Argus, founded the city, and named it after himself. It gained importance during the reign of Proëtus. Proëtus exchanged kingdom with his brother's grandson, Perseus, after Acrisius' death.

Eurystheus was the last important king of Tiryns. Tiryns never regained prominence during the rule of Pelopids (descendants of Pelops).

See the Houses of Argolis.

 
Related Information
Name
Tiryns, Τίρυνς.

Founder
Tiryns

Rulers
Tiryns(?), Proëtus, Perseus, Electryon, Sthenelus, Eurystheus.



Μυκῆναι
Mycenae
 

Mycenae was a city situated north of Argos, on the hill, looking below the valley of Argolis. The city was famous for the Lion Gate (the photo on the right), and it giant masonry, known as Cyclopean walls.

According to the Great Eoiae, a genealogical poem attributed to Hesiod, the city was named after Mycene, daughter of the river-god Inachus and wife of Arestor. Pausanias also mentioned this, but he also mentioned an alternative tradition, where it was founded and built by the Argive hero Perseus. Pausanias elaborated this by saying that Perseus named the city after the mushroom, mykes, which he had pulled out of the ground, so that he could drink the water where it gushed out of the ground. Apollodorus would only say that Perseus fortified the city, not found the city.

Eurystheus, grandson of Perseus was its last ruler of the Perseids, before Atreus and his brother Thyestes (the Pelopids) established a new dynasty. Agamemnon, son of Atreus, was the most powerful ruler in Greece, during the time of the Trojan War.

During the reign of Agamemnon and Orestes, later writers often confused Mycenae with Argos. Sometimes Mycenae was called Argos.

See the Houses of Argolis, for the families who ruled Mycenae.

For genealogy see House of Perseus and House of Atreus.

 
Related Information
Name
Mycenae, Μυκῆναι.

Founder
Perseus

Rulers
Perseus, Electryon, Sthenelus, Eurystheus, Atreus, Thyestes, Agamemnon, Aegisthus, Aletes, Orestes, Tisamenus.



Ναύπλιο
Nauplia
 

Nauplia was a seaport city on the Gulf of Argolis, was founded by Nauplius.

There is some confusion, because there are two Nauplius. Nauplius was the son of Poseidon and Amymone, the daughter of King Danaus of Argos. Nauplius was a great seaman, and he was known as Nauplius the Navigator. Nauplius was not only king of Nauplia, he was pirate, who was known to practice slavery, particularly abducting and selling princesses to other kings.

One slave was Auge, the daughter of King Aleus of Tegea. Aleus discovered that Auge became pregnant when Heracles stayed in Tegea (during the war against Augeias of Elis or Hippocoon of Sparta), Aleus ordered Nauplius to sell his daughter. Nauplius sold Auge to Teuthra, the king of Mysia and founder of Teuthrania. Fortunately for the princess, Teuthra fell in love with Auge, so he married her. Auge became the mother of Telephus, who guided the Greek fleet to Troy, during the Trojan War.

According to Apollodorus, Nauplius was married to Clymene, the daughter of Crateus of Crete, the son of Minos and Pasiphae. And he was the father of Palemedes, Oiax and Nausimedon. Palemedes helped Agamemnon to recruit Odysseus in the army during the Trojan War. Palemedes had exposed Odysseus' ploy (feigning madness), by threatening the death of the infant Telemachus, Odysseus' son. Odysseus got his revenge, by planting Trojan gold in Palemedes' tent and a false letter from King Priam of Troy. Palemedes was condemned as a traitor and was stoned to death. See Conscriptions and the Arrival in Troy in the Trojan War.

Nauplius, in turn, took revenge upon several Greek leaders, returning home from Troy. Nauplius managed to make the wives of Agamemnon, Diomedes and Idomenus of Crete, to take lovers in during their husbands' absence. Clytemnestra's lover, Aegisthus, murdered Agamemnon. While the lovers drove Diomedes and Idomenus into exile.

During the storm near the shore of Euboea, the Greek fleet thought that they were near harbour, because Nauplius had set a false beacon. The ships were wrecked against the rock and many drowned. For this, Nauplius was known as the Wrecker of Ships.


There was the Argonaut Nauplius had sailed with Jason on the Argo. According to Apollonius of Rhodes, the Argonaut Nauplius was the son of Clytoneus, and the great, great, great grandson of the founder of Nauplia (Nauplius I). He was most likely to be the father of Palemedes and the Wrecker of Ship, since he lived closer to the time of the Trojan War, while Nauplius I was born before several generations before Acrisius.

 
Related Information
Name
Nauplia, Ναύπλιο.

Founder
Nauplius

Rulers
Nauplius.



Τροιζήν
Troezen
 

Troezen was a seaport city in southeastern Argolis, on the Saronic Gulf.

At first, the land around Troezen was called Oraea by Orus, the first king of Troezen, and then changed to Althepa, by his grandson, Althepus. Althepus' son, Saron, became king, but he drowned and the water was named him as the Saronic Gulf.

On this land, there were two towns, called Hypereia and Antheia, when Pittheus and Troezen (sons of Pelops) settled in the land. The brothers ruled the land as co-rulers. At the death of Troezen, Pittheus combined two towns together into one city and named the city after his brother.

The Athenian hero, Theseus, was brought up by his grandfather, Pittheus. It was also the scene for Euripides' play, Hippolytus. (See the family tree of the Pelopids.)

 
Related Information
Name
Oraea;
Althepa;
Hypereia and Antheia (2 towns);
Troezen, Τροιζήν.

Founder
Orus

Rulers
Orus, Althepus, Saron, Hyperes, Anthas, Aëtius; Pittheus and Troezen (co-rulers).




Αχαΐα
Achaea
 
 

Achaea was a region in northern Peloponnesus. The whole region, including Sicyonia, was originally called Aegialus, after Aegialeus, a king of Sicyonia.

The major cities of Achaea:

 
Related Information
Name
Aegialus, Αἰγιάλος
Achaea, Αχαΐα.

Founder
Aegialeus

Rulers
Aegialeus.




Ἑλίκη
Helice
 

Helice was a seaport city founded by Ion, son of Creüsa and Apollo (or Xuthus). The city was named after his wife Helice, daughter of Silenus.

 
Related Information
Name
Helice, Ἑλίκη.

Founder
Ion

Rulers
Silenus, Ion.



Αἰγαί
Aegae
 

Aegae was a seaport city of Achaea, where it is said that the location of underwater palace of Poseidon was near the city. Apart from this, there is no important myth of this city.

 
Related Information
Name
Aegae, Αἰγαί.



Πάτραι
Patrae
 

Patrae was a seaport city in Achaea, on the northern coast of Peloponnesus, and the main port on the Gulf of Patrae. The first king was the earth-born Eumelus, who learned to grown corn from Triptolemus. Eumelus had founded the town Aroë. When Patreus arrived, he founded the city Patrae, which included part or all of Aroë.

 
Related Information
Name
Patrae, Πάτραι.

Rulers
Eumelus, Patreus.




Ἦλις
Elis
 
 

Elis was a northwestern region of the Peloponnesus. The principal city of Elis was also called Elis. It was named after Eleius, grandson of Endymion.

The major cities in Elis were:

See House of Elis for the family tree.

 
Related Information
Name
Elis, Ἦλις, Ἆλις (Doric).

Founder
Endymion




Ἦλις
Elis
 

Elis (Ἦλις) was the capital of the region also called Elis. Elis was founded by either Aëthlius, son of Aeolus and Protogeneia, or by Endymion, Aëthlius' son by Calyce.

Endymion had three sons – Epeius, Paeon and Aetolus. To decide which son would rule after him, a foot race was held. Epeius won, and immediately succeeded his father, who abdicated. The people of Elis were called Epeians. However, Epeius died childless (or without a son, for another story say that his daughter, named Hyrmina, married the Lapith king, Phorbas. Aetolus succeeded his brother. Aetolus did not rule Elis for very long. When Aetolus was banished for accidental killing, the city was ruled by Eleius, son of Poseidon and Eurycyda, daughter of Endymion. The city and region was named after Eleius. The people also became known as the Eleians.

Later, Elis became involved in a war against Pelops, king of Pisa. Pelops became so powerful that the Eleians asked Phorbas, the Lapith king of Thessaly, to migrate to Elis and helped them with the war. Phorbas' son, Augeias became the next king of Elis.

Augeias was king during the time when Heracles was performing the twelve labours. Augeias was the owner of the largest herd of cattle. The fifth labour was cleaning Augeias' huge stable. Augeias had agreed to pay Heracles with a tenth of his cattle, if the hero could complete the task within a single day. However, Augeias refused to honour his promise to Heracles, after the hero successfully completed his task. Some years later, Heracles attacked Elis with his army, defeating Elis in the second invasion. (For genealogy, see the Aeolids in Elis.)

 
Related Information
Name
Elis, Ἦλις, Ἆλις (Doric).

Founder
Aëthlius or Endymion

Rulers
Aëthlius, Endymion, Epeius, Aetolus, Eleius, Augeias, Agasthenes, Polyxeinus.



Πίσα
Pisa
 

Pisa was a major city of the region Elis. It was situated on the north bank of the river Alpeius, not far the border to Arcadia. Not far from the city was small town of Olympia.

Pisa was founded by Pisus, son of Perieres. Pisa did not gain prominent until Oenomaüs and Pelop. Pisa broke away from Elis dominance, during the reign of Pelops, and fought the Eleans for the control of Olympic Games, which was held every four years.

For genealogy, see the House of Pelops.

 
Related Information
Name
Pisa, Πίσα.

Founder
Pisus

Rulers
Pisus, Oenomaüs, Pelop.



Ολυμπία
Olympia
 

Olympia was a neigbouring town, west of Pisa, on the river Alpeius, of the region Elis. Olympia was town that found the famous Olympic Games, which was held every four years. Historically, the Olympic didn't exist until 776 BC, yet writers of myths, made it exist during the time of the Bronze Age, and many heroes won prizes.

One king of Olympia, Clymenus, was driven out his city by Endymion, king of Elis. Elis controlled the Olympics.

 
Related Information
Name
Olympia, Ολυμπία.

Rulers
Clymenus.




Αρκαδία
Arcadia
 
 

Arcadia was a large central region of the Peloponnesus. Arcadia was landlocked and mountainous. Either Pelasgus or his son Lycaon were said to be the first ruler of Arcadia. The region was named after Lycaon's grandson, Arcas, the son of Zeus and Callisto. Compare with other regions of Greece, the Arcadians were more primitive and pastoral in outlook.

There are many cities in Arcadia; the major cities were:

According to the Catalogues of Women, Pallas, son of Lycaon, founded Pallantium, but nothing else is know about this city.

The cities, Mantinea, Orchomenus and Megalopolis, were more relevant to history of ancient Greece than in Greek myths.

 
Related Information
Name
Arcadia, Αρκαδία.

Founder
Pelasgus or Lycaon

Rulers
Pelasgus, Lycaon, Arcas.




Τεγεα
Tegea
 

Tegea was a city in southeastern Arcadia. In the time of Aleüs and his descendants, it was the capital of Arcadia.

Lycurgus and his brothers, Cephalus and Amphidamas, ruled Tegea and Arcadia together. Lycurgus' brothers and his son Ancaeüs were Argonauts and hunters for the Calydonian Boar. Ancaeüs; however, he was one of hunters killed by the boar.

The Arcadian under Cephalus aided Heracles in the war against Elis, however the king and his sons were all killed. Lycurgus was succeeded by his grandnephew, Echemus, the king who in single combat, killed Hyllus, son of Heracles, in the first war against the Heraclids.

For genealogy, see Houses of Arcadia.

 
Related Information
Name
Tegea, Τεγεα.

Rulers
Apheidas, Aleüs; Lycurgus, Cephalus and Amphidamas (co-rulers); Agapenor, Echemus.



Λυκόσουρα
Lycosura
 

Lycosura was a city in southern Arcadia, south of Mt Lycaeus. Lycosura was said to be the oldest in Greece. It was possibly founded by Lycaon.

 
Related Information
Name
Lycosura, Λυκόσουρα.

Founder
Lycaon

Rulers
Lycaon.



Στύμφαλος
Stymphalus
 

Stymphalus was a city in north-eastern Arcadia. Stymphalus was founded by Stymphalus, son of Elatus and Laodice. Stymphalus successfully resisted Pelops and his Pisan army, until he was treacherously murdered by Pelops during a truce. Stymphalus was succeeded by his two sons, Agamedes and Gortys.

The city was located near the lake that was once infested by the Stymphalian birds. Heracles drove the birds away from Lake Stymphalus as one of his labours.

 
Related Information
Name
Stymphalus, Στύμφαλος.

Founder
Stymphalus

Rulers
Stymphalus, Agamedes.



Ψωφίς
Psophis
 

Psophis was a city in north-western Arcadia, located near the Erymanthian mountain. Originally called Erymanthus, then changing to Phegia by Phegeus, before finally being called Psophis.

 
Related Information
Name
Erymanthus, Ερύμανθοα;
Phegia, Φηγία, Φήγεια;
Psophis, Ψωφίς.

Rulers
Phegeus.



Φενεος
Pheneüs
 

Pheneüs was a city in northeastern Arcadia.

The only mythical significant of this city had to with the myth of Heracles. When Heracles was defeated in the first war against the kingdom of Elis, the hero came to Pheneüs to recover from his illness and regroup his army. It is also believed that Iphicles, Heracles' half-brother had died near this city.

 
Related Information
Name
Pheneüs, Φενεος.




Λακωνία
Laconia
 
 

Laconia was the southernmost region of the Peloponnesus. Its principal city was Sparta.

Lelex was the first ruler of Laconia. His people were known as the Lelegians. It wasn't until three generations later that Lacedaemon married Sparta, daughter of Eurotas son of Myles. Lacedaemon was the son of Zeus and Taygete, who was daughter of Atlas and Pleione. Lacedaemon founded the city, which he named after his wife.

Sparta was the only city of importance, concerning mythological themes.

 
Related Information
Name
Laconia, Λακωνία.

Founder
Lelex

Rulers
Lelex.




Σπάρτα
Sparta
 

Sparta was founded by Lacedaemon and named after his wife, Sparta. Sparta was often called Lacedaemon. The city located on the river of Eurotas. They had a son named Amyclas, who ruled after Lacedaemon.

Amyclas found a small neighbouring city, which named after himself as Amyclae. Amyclae was the centre of cult and festival of Hyacinthus, who was Amyclas' son. Amyclas was the father of Argalus, Cynortas, Hyacinthus and Leaneira. Argalus ruled after his father, then Cynortas.

Cynortas was the father of Oebalus, who had succeeded him to the Spartan throne. Oebalus had married Gorgophone, daughter of Perseus and Andromeda. Gorgophone was at first married to Perieres, king of Messenia and the son of Aeolus and Enarete. Oebalus became the father of Tyndareus, Icarius and Arene. Oebalus was also the father of Hippocoon, by the naiad Bateia.

Some say that Perieres was the son of Cynortas and was the father of Tyndareus, Icarius, Arene, Aphareus and Leucippus. But this is rather confusing, and it makes his son and daughter, Aphareus and Arene married to each other.

Tyndareus was Sparta's most famous king in Greek mythology. Tyndareus lost his throne to his (half-)brother Hippocoön. Tyndareus regained the throne when Heracles defeated and Hippocoön in a war.

Tyndareus was husband of Leda, daughter of Thestius. She bore some of her children to Tyndareus - Castor(?), Clytemnestra and Timandra. While the other children, Polydeuces and Helen belonged to Zeus. When his sons, Castor and Polydeuces (Dioscuri) were killed, his son-in-law, named Menelaüs succeeded him to the throne.

You will find more information about Sparta, in the page titled House of Sparta.

See House of Sparta for the family tree.

 
Related Information
Name
Sparta, Σπάρτα (Doric), Σπάρτη (Attic);
Lacedaemon, Λακεδαιμων.

Founder
Lacedaemon

Rulers
The following rulers was the region of Laconia: Lelex, Myles, Eurotas.
Lacedaemon (Sparta), Amyclae, Cynortas, Oebalus, Tyndareüs, Hippocoön, Menelaüs, Orestes, Tisamenus; Procles and Eurysthenes (co-rulers and Heraclids).




Μεσσηνία
Messenia
 
 

The first ruler of Messenia was Polycaon. Polycaon found the city of Andania. Married to Messene, he named the whole region after his wife.

A few generations later, with the arrival of the Aeolid Perieres, the capital was moved to Arene. Pylas arrived shortly after from Megara. Driven out of city of Megara, he founded Pylus on the Messenian coast. Another Aeolid named Neleus drove out Pylas from his city. Pylus became a capital at Aphareus' death in Arene. A new capital, Stenyclerus, was built at the time of the Heraclids. For the genealogical trees, see House of Messenia and the Aeolids in Messenia).

See the Aeolids in Messenia, for the history of the Messenia.

Major cities of Messenia were:

 
Related Information
Name
Messenia, Μεσσηνία.

Founder
Polycaon

Rulers
Polycaon and Messene; Perieres, Aphareus and Leucippus, Neleus, Nestor. The Heraclids rulers: are Cresphontes, Polyphontes, Aepytus, Glaucus.



Ανδανία
Andania
 

Andania became the first capital of Messene. It was founded and ruled by Polycaon and his wife Messene. The whole region of Messenia was named after his wife.

 
Related Information
Name
Andania, Ανδανία.

Founder
Polycaon

Rulers
Polycaon and Messene; followed by several generation of kings (names unknown).



Ἀρενη
Arene
 

Arene was a city of Messenia. The location of Arene is unknown. It was founded by Perieres, an Aeolid from Thessaly.

 
Related Information
Name
Arene, Ἀρενη.

Founder
Perieres

Rulers
Perieres, Aphareus and Leucippus, Neleus.



Πύλος
Pylus
 

Pylus or Pylos was founded by Pylas, exiled king of Megara. Pylas came to Messenia, and established a city on the southwest coast of the Peloponnesus.

An Aeolid named Neleus, drove Pylos out of his city and became Pylus' second king. It enjoyed prosperity until it was captured by Heracles, who killed Neleus and all but one son. Nestor succeeded his father and ruled for three long generations.

In the war against Troy, Nestor contributed ninety ships, because his son, Antilochus was a suitor of Helen.

See the Aeolids in Messenia, for the history of the city of Pylus.

 
Related Information
Name
Pylus, Pylos, Πύλος.

Founder
Pylas

Rulers
Pylas, Neleus, Nestor.









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