The Ancient Deities found in this page, contained the primeval beings that came into existence since the beginning of time, and who were involved with the creation of the universe. These are deities who had come before the time of the Titans and the Olympians, which includes Chaos, Nyx, Gaea, Uranus and many others.

Most of the people are familiar with these primordial beings from Hesiod (the ones I had mentioned earlier). But there are other beings found in the alterative and more obscure creation myths, which not found in Hesiod's accepted myths. They come from various sources, but more noticeably in philosophy and in Mystery religions.


 
Hesiod's Primordial Deities
Other Primeval Beings







Hesiod's Primordial Deities


The following are some of the earliest beings that came into existence, out of the creation, before the existence of the Titans and the Olympians. Like some of the Titans, some were no more than just personification and were known only by who their offspring were.

Note that the list of primeval deities below was more commonly found in Hesiod's creation myths. There are few deities listed in Other Primeval Beings that come from Orphic or other Greek creation myths.

Also, some authors just referred to these primordial beings not by names, but by what they represented, such as Earth instead of Gaea, Heaven instead of Uranus, Night instead of Nyx, etc.

Chaos      
Nyx      
Erebus      
Tartarus
Aether      
Hemera
Eros      
Gaea
Uranus
Pontus
Nereus
Phorcys
Eurybia


Genealogy:
    Greek Deities

Related Page:
    Creation
    Olympians




Χάος
Chaos
 

Long after the "beginning of time", the void known as Chaos came into existence in the universe. Out of Chaos, or together with it, came Gaea ("Earth"), Tartarus and Eros ("Love"). Without a mate, Chaos bore Nyx ("Night") and Erebus ("Darkness").

Hesiod doesn't give us much detail about Chaos, only saying that he was the very first to come into being. It is from the 1st century BC Roman poet, Ovid, that we are given more description of Chaos. Before the earth, sea and heaven (as well as the heavenly bodies, such as the sun, moon and stars), before even there was the deathless gods, Chaos existed as formless mass. It was lifeless matter, where all elements of creation were heaped together, so that nothing could be distinguished from one another.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

According to the Orphic myths, Chaos was born from Chronus (Time) and Adrasteia (Necessity), at the same time as Erebus and Aether. It was Chronus and Aether who became the parents of the first god, Phanes or Protogonus, who was usually identified with Eros (Love).

 
Related Information
Name
Chaos, Khaos, Χάος.

Related Articles
Nyx, Erebus, Eros, Gaea, Tartarus, Chronus, Adrasteia.

Creation.



Νύξ
Nyx (Night)
 

Goddess of the night. Nyx was identified by the Roman as Nox, and was often just as Night. Nyx was born together with Erebus, Gaea, Tartarus, and Eros ("Love"), out of Chaos. By her brother Erebus, Nyx bore Aether ("Upper Air") and Hemera ("Day").

Nyx was also the mother of Moros ("Doom"), Thanatos ("Death"), Hypnos ("Sleep"), Charon, Nemesis ("Retribution"), and the Fates (Moerae). Nyx was possibly the mother of Eris ("Strife") and the Hesperides. Her other children were mostly abstract personification: Apate ("Deceit"), Geras ("Old Age"), the Keres ("Dooms"), Momos ("Blame"), Oizus ("Misery") and Philotes ("Tenderness"). Most of these children dwelled in the Underworld.

Nyx was sometimes seen as a winged goddess. Her wings were black or shadowy, and she was called "swift Night". She was said to dwell in the Underworld during the day, and only come out at dusk.

In the Iliad, Homer mentioned that the only goddess that Zeus only truly feared was the "all-subduing Night". Zeus would displeasure her by destroying Hypnos (Sleep), one of her many offspring.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.


According to the Orphic Creation Myth, Nyx (Night) was the daughter of Protogonus (Phanes), the first god, without a mother. Protogonus had male and female sex, so he was able to produce Nyx without a partner. From Phanes, she was the mother of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaea (Earth).

The moment she was born, Nyx had ruled with her father, until he made her the supreme ruler of heaven and earth. Later, she gave the supreme rulership to her son Uranus. Though, Nyx had freely given away power to Uranus, she gave advice to three successive rulers: Uranus, Cronus and Zeus. The Orphic Nyx seemed to have taken over the role of Hesiodic Gaea, because it is Nyx who have prophetic power, not Gaea.

 
Related Information
Name
Nyx, Νύξ – "Night".
Nox (Romans).

Related Articles
Chaos, Erebus, Eros, Gaea, Tartarus, Aether, Hemera, Uranus, Cronus, Zeus, Protogonus (Phanes).

Creation, Orphic Creation Myth.



Ἔρεβος
Erebus (Darkness)
 

Erebus was born together with Nyx, Gaea, Tartarus, and Eros ("Love"), out of Chaos. With his sister Nyx, Erebus was father of Aether ("Upper Air") and Hemera ("Day").

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

Apart from the part he played in the Creation, as being the father of Aether and Hemera, Erebus was usually just the personification of one region of the Underworld. The Underworld was usually divided into two main areas: Erebus and Tartarus. Erebus and Hades were used interchangeably to denote the Underworld. Tartarus was the deepest of the Underworld, which holds the Titans in prison. While Erebus also divided into several areas, apart from Hades' House. Erebus was divided by five of its underground rivers. Most shades will their last resting place in the Plain of Asphodel, and only a few were given place in the Elysian Fields, though, Elysium was sometimes located not underground, but on the surfaces, usually an island.

According to the Orphic myth, Erebus was born with Chaos and Aether.

See also House of Hades for a more detailed description of the Underworld.

 
Related Information
Name
Erebus, Erebos, Ἔρεβος – "Darkness".

Related Articles
Chaos, Nyx, Eros, Gaea, Tartarus, Aether, Hemera.

Creation.



Τάρταρος
Tartarus
 

Tartarus was born together with Nyx, Erebus, Gaea, and Eros ("Love"), out of Chaos.

Tartarus was personification of the darkest and deepest region of the Underworld. This is the region where Uranus had thrown the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclopes. Later this was where Cronus and other Titans, who had opposed Zeus, were imprisoned and guarded by the Hundred-Handed.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

By his sister Gaea ("Earth"), they were parents of the monsters – Typhon and possibly Echidna.

 
Related Information
Name
Tartarus, Tartaros, Τάρταρος.

Related Articles
Chaos, Nyx, Erebus, Eros, Gaea, Uranus, Cronus, Zeus.

Creation.



Αἰθήρ
Aether
 

The upper air or sky. Aether was personification of the upper sky. With his sister Hemera (Day), they were offspring of Erebus (Darkness) and Nyx (Night).

Aether was probably the father of Uranus by Gaea.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.


According to the Orphic Creation Myth, Aether was born at the same time as Chaos and Erebus, from Chronus (Time) and Adrasteia (Necessity). In the Orphic myth, Aether was seen as a female being. Aether together with her father Chronus formed and produced the Cosmic Egg (World Egg). Within the World Egg were Phanes or Protogonus, the first god and supreme ruler, as well as the Creator god.

 
Related Information
Name
Aether, Aither, Αἰθήρ – "Upper Air".

Related Articles
Hemera, Erebus, Nyx, Gaea, Uranus. Chronus, Protogonus (Phanes).

Creation.



Ἡμέρα
Hemera
 

Day, the goddess of day. With her brother Aether ("Upper Air"), they were offspring of Erebus ("Darkness") and Nyx ("Night"). Apart from the story of the creation, no other myths were associated with Hemera.

 
Related Information
Name
Hemera, Ἡμέρα – "Day".

Related Articles
Aether, Erebus, Nyx.

Creation.



Ἐρως
Eros (Cupid)
 

God of love. Early Greek myths see Eros as a primordial being. According to Hesiod, from Chaos, Eros was born together with Nyx, Erebus, Gaea, and Tartarus. Eros, Gaea and Tartarus seemed to be self-created. Hesiod doesn't write much about Eros except that he was "the fairest among the deathless gods".

Eros was a sexual force that would permit the work of creation to continue. Eros enabled personified abstractions, such as Nyx and Erebus, to produced offspring as well Gaea producing offspring of her own (without a father): Uranus, Ourea and Pontus. (See Creation.) Eros doesn't appear at all in Homer's works.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

According to a pre-Homeric myth, Eros was the son of Aether (Upper Air) and Hemera (Day). In the Orphic Theogony, Eros was identical to the golden-winged god Phanes/Protogonus, who was born from the World Egg. According to the Orphic myth, as Phanes (Protogonus), he was the first Creator, where he was not identified with Eros, but also to Dionysus. Both Dionysus and Eros have even the same epithet, Bromios, which means "Thunderer".

That Phanes or Eros was born from the Cosmic Egg; this bears a striking resemblance to the comedy, titled the Birds, by Aristophanes, an Athenian comedy playwright of the late 5th century BC. Aristophanes wrote that Night (Nyx) mated with the Storm(?) so that she bore a large silvery egg, when the World Egg hatched, Love was born, bringing with it, light. Here, Eros also appeared as with a golden wing.

Eros only appeared, more popularly, as the youngest god, and was youthful and roguish son of Aphrodite and Ares in works of later writers, during the Hellenistic and Roman period. This makes him the brother of Phobus (panic), Deimus (fear) and Harmonia, the wife of Cadmus of Thebes.

One poet (Olen) says that Eros was the son of Eileithyia, a goddess of childbirth.

The later tradition, Eros appeared as a youth, almost like a cherubic angel except that he carried a bow and arrows. His gold-tipped arrows can make a deity or human fall in love, while his lead-tipped arrows will make them immune to love.

Eros was identified by the Romans as Cupid. Cupid was also called Amor. According to the Golden Ass, written by Lucius Apuleius, Cupid (Eros) married Psyche. He became the father of a daughter named Volupta ("Pleasure"). (See Cupid and Psyche in the Roman Deities page.)

 
Related Information
Name
Eros, Ἐρως – "Love".
Cupid, Amor (Roman).

Sources
Theogony was written by Hesiod.

Library was written by Apollodorus.

Metamorphoses was written by Ovid.

The Golden Ass was written by Apuleius.

Birds was written by Aristophanes.

Poetica Astronomica was written by Hyginus.

Argonautica was written by Apollonius.

The Aeneid was written by Virgil.

Related Articles
See also Cupid and Protogonus (Phanes).

Aphrodite, Ares, Eileithyia, Nyx, Erebus, Gaea, Chaos.

Creation, Cupid and Psyche.



Γαἳα
Gaea (Earth)
 

The personification of earth, and the goddess of the earth. Gaea, also known as Gaia or Ge, but to the Romans, she was known as Terra Mater and Tellus. According to Diodorus Siculus, her name was also Titaea.

Gaea was born together with Nyx ("Night"), Erebus, Tartarus, and Eros ("Love"), out of Chaos. Without a mate (or probably mated with Aether), she bore Uranus ("Heaven"), Ourea ("Mountains") and Pontus ("Sea").

By her own son Pontus, she bore Nereus and Phorcys; both of them were ancient sea-gods.

She married her other son Uranus, who at this time, became the supreme ruler of the universe. She was the mother of the Hundred-handed (Hecatoncheires), the Cyclopes, and the Titans (See Creation).

When her husband/son imprisoned her children the Hundred-handed and the Cyclopes under earth, because of their size and hideous looks, Gaea conspired with her son Cronus to remove Uranus from power. Gaea gave a sickle to Cronus where he cut off his own father's genital and threw it into the sea. From this genital, sea foamed formed so that Aphrodite the goddess of love was born. The blood that fell on earth (Gaea), new children were born, known as the Gigantes (Giants), Erinyes, and Meliae.

Castrated, Uranus was overthrow by his son, who assumed his mantle as supreme ruler of universe. Cronus and his brothers and sisters (Titans) have high places of authority on heaven and earth (see Titans). Cronus was the one who created the Golden Age of Man. Cronus married his own sister, Rhea (Ops).

However his rule could not last. Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father. Cronus tried to prevent the fulfilment of the prophecy by swallowing each child Rhea had bore him. Only Zeus, the youngest son, escaped the fates of his siblings. Rhea hid the infant (Zeus) in Crete, while she gave her husband a stone wrapped in swaddling-cloth to devour.

With the help of Gaea and the Oceanid Metis, Zeus caused Cronus to disgorge Zeus' siblings, when Cronus was given emetic to drink. War broke out between the Titans and the younger Olympians. A few Titans sided with the Olympians, including Prometheus. Prometheus was reputably the wisest of gods. Prometheus advised Zeus to release the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclopes. With these new allies, Zeus had Cronus and his brothers confined in Tartarus. Zeus assumed the mantle of supreme ruler, but shared the world with his brothers, Poseidon and Hades.

Gaea was now unhappy with Zeus and the Olympians for imprisoning most of the male Titans in Tartarus (Underworld). Zeus faced new dangers from Gaea's other children, first the monster Typhon, and later the Gigantes (Giants). Typhon was the son of Tartarus and Gaea. Gaea had foretold that the gods could not defeat the Gigantes, unless it was aided by a mortal hero. Zeus had first defeated Typhon, and centuries later the Gigantes, with the help of the hero Heracles. See Gigantomachy about Gigantes, in the Heracles' page.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

Another giant son she bore to Poseidon was Antaeüs (Antaeus), who was killed by Heracles, for challenging the hero in a wrestling match. Antaeüs grew stronger whenever he was thrown to the earth, because his strength come his mother.

She had the ability to foretell the future. She was the first own the oracle of Delphi, before she gave it to her daughter Themis, a Titaness. She prophesied her son's (Cronus) downfall. She also warned Zeus that his second child Metis would overthrow him.


According to the Orphic myth, Gaea and Uranus were not mother and son. Rather they were sister and brother. They were the children of Protogonus (Phanes) and Nyx.

Her role in the Orphic Creation was minor. The Orphic Nyx seemed to have taken over the role of Hesiodic Gaea, because it was Nyx who have prophetic power, and gave advice to three successive rulers of the world: Uranus, Cronus and Zeus.

 
Related Information
Name
Gaea, Gaia, Ge, Gê, Γαἳα – "Earth" (Greek).
Titaea (Greek).
Terra, Tellus (Roman).

Eponyms
Titaea.

Related Articles
See also Tellus (Terra Mater).

See also the Creation and Gaea and her Daughters in Mother Goddesses.

Chaos, Uranus, Cronus, Rhea, Pontus, Metis, Prometheus, Zeus, Poseidon, Heracles, Antaeüs.

Titans, Hundred-handed, Cyclops, Typhon, Gigantes.

Facts and Figures: Astronomy.


Gaea
Statuette, 7th century BC



Οὔρανος
Uranus (Sky)
 

The sky and the god of the sky. Uranus was the son of Gaea and possibly of Aether. Uranus married his mother and became the first supreme ruler of the world.

(According to the Orphic myth, Gaea and Uranus were not mother and son. Rather they were sister and brother. They were the children of Protogonus (Phanes) and Nyx.)

Uranus was the father by his mother Gaea, of the Hundred-handed, the Cyclopes, and the Titans. When Gaea bore the Hundred-handed (Hecatoncheires) and Cyclopes, their ugliness caused him to imprison his children within the body of the earth (Gaea). Uranus ruled the universe, until Gaea roused her children to rebel against his rule. The youngest of the Titans, Cronus, castrated his father with a sickle and flung his genitals into the sea. From the foam that formed about the sea, Aphrodite was born.

The Giants, Erinyes, and Meliae were born from his blood that fell on earth (Gaea).

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

According to Diodorus Siculus, Uranus was a mortal king who was deified at his death. Uranus was married to Titaea (Gaea) and he was the father of 45 sons, of which 15 of them were known as the Titans. Uranus was the first ruler of the human. His eldest daughter, Basileia (Theia), ruled after him, with her husband Hyperion. See Creation, Cosmogony of Diodorus Siculus.

 
Related Information
Name
Uranus, Ouranus, Ouranos, Οὔρανος – "Sky" or "Heaven" (Greek).
Coelus (Roman).

Related Articles
Gaea, Titans, Cronus, Aphrodite, Erinyes.

Hundred-handed, Cyclops.

Creation.

Facts and Figures: Astronomy.



Πόντος
Pontus (Sea)
 

A personification of the sea. Pontus was born, along with Uranus ("Sky") and Ourea ("Hill") from Gaea. Pontus literally means the "sea".

Pontus lay with his mother Gaea and became the father of Nereus and Phorcys, and also Eurybia, Thaumas (father of Iris), and the sea monster Ceto. As a sea-god, his son Nereus was more important than he was.

Pontus was also said to have a wife, named Thalassa (Dione), a sea goddess, possibly the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.

 
Related Information
Name
Pontus, Pontos, Πόντος – "Sea".

Related Articles
Gaea, Nereus, Phorcys, Eurybia, Iris.



Νηρεύς
Nereus
 

An ancient sea-god. Nereus was the son of Pontus ("Sea") and Gaea ("Earth"). Nereus was the brother of Phorcys, Eurybia, Thaumas (father of Iris), and the sea monster Ceto.

Nereus married the Oceanid, named Doris, who bore fifty sea-nymphs, known as the Nereïds (Nereids). The most important Nereïds were Thetis, Psamathe and Galatea.

He has the gift of prophetic power and the ability to change his shape.

 
Related Information
Name
Nereus, .

Related Articles
Gaea, Pontus, Phorcys, Eurybia, Ceto, Nereïds.



Φόρκυς
Phorcys
 

An ancient sea-god. Phorcys () was the son of Pontus and Gaea. Phorcys may have been an important sea-god before the arrival of Poseidon. By his sister, Ceto (sea-monster), he became the father of the Gorgons, Graeae, and possibly of Echidna and Ladon.

 
Related Information
Related Articles
Gaea, Pontus, Nereus, Eurybia, Ceto.



Εἐρύβια
Eurybia
 

Daughter of Gaea and Pontus. Eurybia married the Titan Crius, and was the mother of Astraeüs (Astraeus), Perses and Pallas.

For some reason, Hesiod says that she had heart of flint. Hesiod had also called her bright goddess.

 
Related Information
Related Articles
Gaea, Pontus, Nereus, Phorcys, Crius, Perses, Pallas, Astraeus.








Other Primeval Beings

The following primordial beings or deities come from more obscure mythology, such as from the Orphic creation myths.

 
Demiurge
Oceanus
Eurynome
Ophion
Chronus (Time)
Adrasteia
Protogonus (Phanes)


Please note that some of deities are already listed in the previous section in Hesiod's Primordial Deities, such as Chaos, Nyx, Aether, Eros, Gaea, etc.


Related Pages: Obscure Creation Myths




Demiurge
 

Demiurge (Demiurgus, Demiourgos) means "Artificer", "Artisan", "Builder" or "Craftsman" was the name first used by the Athenian philosopher, Plato (428-347 BC).

Plato was a pupil and follower of Socrates. Though, Socrates had left no works about his philosophy, Plato placed Socrates in many of his dialogues. How much of Socrates' real teaching that is in Plato's writings is debatable. Plato's ranged from political to natural science; some of them are religious or metaphysical in natures.

According to Plato's dialogue, Timaeus, Demiurge was the supreme creator of the universe and he created the World Soul, the heaven, earth and seas, as well as the lower deities. It is the lower deities who had created mankind and all other living beings (eg. animals, plants, etc). Plato's Demiurge was actually a benevolent creator.


To the Gnostic schools and other usages of Demiurge have changed, it came to mean an arrogant god or angel, who presumed to have created the physical, material world. Usually, the Demiurge is an androgynous being; a being with both genders and able to reproduce without a mate.

The name Demiurge, was later used to call one of the Gnostic gods or angels (known as the archons, "rulers"), named Yaldabaoth, Ialdabaoth or Jaldabaoth. In the Gnostic myth, Ialdabaoth was the arrogant God of Israel (Yahweh), but not the true Supreme Being that Jesus had often referred to as the Good Father or Heavenly Father. Yaldabaoth was indeed the creator of the physical, material world, but it was a world without soul. It was Sophia who gave soul to mankind or breathes life into a body. Yaldabaoth was arrogant ruler, boasting that there was no other god but him. The Aeon or goddess Sophia (Wisdom, but she was also known as Pistis "Faith") proved Yaldabaoth wrong, by appearing to him as limitless light.

Any arrogant god or other being could be called Demiurge, such as the Ophion or the World Serpent, who mated with the Creator Goddess Eurynome. Eurynome lay a silver egg (Cosmic Egg), which the entire world, sun, moon and stars were created, including plant and animal life. Ophion had arrogantly boasted that he alone had created the world. For this boast, Eurynome kicked Ophion's teeth out and flung it into Tartarus.

In the Orphic Creation Myth, the Demiurge is usually referred to Zeus. Zeus swallowed Protogonus, the first creator of the universe, as well as the entire universe. With the universe in his belly, Zeus possessed the powers of Protogonus, Zeus then recreated the world.

 
Related Information
Name
Demiurge, Demiurgus, Demiourgos – "Creator", "Builder", "Artificer" or "Craftsman"..

Sources
Timaeus was a dialogue written by Plato.

Related Articles
Ophion.



Oceanus
 

According to Homer and Apollonius of Rhodes, Oceanus wasn't a Titan, like in Hesiod's Theogony. Rather that he was primeval Ocean. See also the Titans, Oceanus.

According to Homer, the gods arose from Oceanus and Tethys. Like Hesiod, the river Ocean (or Oceanus) surrounded the flat disk of the Earth (Gaea). The river Oceanus is the outer limit of the universe, where the sun doesn't shine. See Homeric Creation.

According to Apollonius, Oceanus was possibly the father of the Creator Goddess, Eurynome. Either Eurynome self-created herself by springing out of the Ocean, or he actually fathered her. See also Eurynome and Ophion in the Creation page.

The historian, Diodorus Siculus, wrote:

  For I go to see the ends of the bountiful earth,
Oceanus source of the gods and Tethys divine
Their mother.


Though there are no actual myths about Oceanus being a Creator god, other than brief references scattered throughout the ancient sources, we can only guess of his importance in the Creation myths.

 
Related Information
Name
Oceanus, Okeanos, Ocean, Ὠκανωός.

Related Articles
See also the Titan Oceanus.

Tethys, Eurynome.



Εὐρυνόμη
Eurynome
 

The Goddess of All Things. Eurynome was the mother goddess and ultimate Creator goddess. Eurynome was possibly also a sun and moon goddess.

According to Apollonius of Rhodes, he wrote in the Argonautica that the first being was the goddess Eurynome, the daughter of Ocean or Oceanus.

Apollonius' Eurynome may or may not be the same as the Oceanid nymph named Eurynome. Both were daughter of Oceanus, but according to Apollonius, Oceanus wasn't a Titan; instead of Oceanus was primordial water. Apollonius' Oceanus was more like Hesiod's Chaos than Hesiod's Titan Oceanus.

Eurynome and Ophion had fashioned the Cosmic Egg, which created the world such as the land, sea and heaven, and then populated with animals. Eurynome with her consort, Ophion, were the first to rule at Olympus, before they were displaced by the Titans, Rhea and Cronus. Cronus fought with Ophion, while Rhea wrestled with Eurynome, and they were flung from heaven into the depth of the Ocean.

This means that Apollonius' account, had replaced Gaea and Uranus, with Eurynome and Ophion.

There is a different and rather dubious account told by Robert Graves, about Eurynome and Ophion, in his so-called Pelasgus Creation Myth.

See Eurynome and Ophion in the Creation.

 
Related Information
Name
Eurynome, Εὐρυνόμη – "wide-wandering".

Sources
Argonautica was written by Apollonius of Rhodes.

Related Articles
See also Eurynome (Nymph).

Ophion, Oceanus (or Titans, Oceanus), Cronus, Rhea.

Creation, Eurynome and Ophion.



Ὀφίων
Ophion
 

Primordial snake or World Serpent. Ophion was a snake created by Eurynome, who rolled the air and winds into a living being.

According to the Argonautica, Apollonius of Rhodes wrote a very brief account of the Creation that was very different from Hesiod in Theogony. He replaced Uranus and Gaea with Ophion and the Oceanid Eurynome.

Ophion was an obscure god, who was only recorded in the Argonautica. So nothing is known about him in other sources. It seemed that Ophion might have being the first primordial god. Eurynome, however, was known as the daughter of Oceanus.

When the sky, earth and sea were created, and the creatures began to populate the world, Ophion and Eurynome ruled from Olympus. The Titans rebelled against their rule, where Cronus and Rhea threw Ophion and Eurynome out of heaven, into the river Oceanus. Cronus and Rhea then ruled the world in their places. They ruled while Zeus was still a child living in the cave of Mount Dictye, and only until the Cyclopes wield and gave the thunderbolts to Zeus.

As I had said, Apollonius' account is very short about Eurynome and Ophion (See Apollonius' Account in the Creation page). I had to look elsewhere on this strange creation myth.

 
Related Information
Name
Ophion, Ὀφίων – "snake" or "serpent".

Sources
Argonautica was written by Apollonius of Rhodes.

Related Articles
Eurynome, Oceanus, Tethys, Uranus, Gaea, Cronus, Rhea, Zeus.



Χρόνος
Chronus (Time)
 

Before the world and the gods were created, there was nothing but Time, which the Greeks called Chronus or Khronos, and Necessity, who was named Adrasteia (Ananke). This was a period where it was called the Unaging Time because the time was unlimited and indeterminate, which some people called Aeon or Aion. Chronus was something like the Aeons of the Gnostic myths and Manichaeism, supreme beings, which were either superior angels or gods.

Different writers give different description to Chronus. To some, he was seen as a great winged serpent or dragon, with one head of a bull and another head of a lion. He also has a third head that of the god.

With Adrasteia, they engendered several other beings, Chaos, Erebus and Aether. Chronus then fashioned the Cosmic Egg (World Egg) with Aether. When the World Egg hatched, Protogonus (First-born) was born. Protogonus was known by another name: Phanes, god of light. Protogonus or Phanes was the first god and the Creator god.

 
Related Information
Name
Chronus, Khronos, Χρόνος – "Ageless Time".
Heracles, Herakles.
Aeon, Æon, Aion.

Related Articles
Chaos, Adrasteia (Ananke), Aether, Chaos, Erebus, Protogonus (Phanes).

Orphic Creation.



Adrasteia
 

Necessity. Adrasteia had existed with Chronus (Time), at the beginning, before the world was created. Another name for the personification of "Fate" or "Necessity" is Ananke.

Like Chronus, Adrasteia was portrayed as giant serpent or dragon, but as a female principle of Necessity, just as Chronus was a male principle of infinite Time. Adrasteia was the mother of Chaos, Erebus and Aether.

 
Related Information
Name
Adrasteia (Orphic); Ananke, Ἀνάγκη – "Necessity".

Related Articles
Chronus, Chaos, Erebus, Aether.



Πρωτογονυς (Φανης)
Protogonus (Phanes)
 

Creator god. Protogonus (Protogonos) was the first god to be born from the Cosmic Egg (World Egg), which Chaos and Aether had reproduced, according to the Orphic Creation Myths. Protogonus named mean "First Born", and it was he who had created the universe.

Protogonus have three different names. Protogonus was popularly known by another name as Phanes, the golden-winged god of light and love. His other names were Ericapaeus (Power) and Metis (Thought). These three different names represent the three different aspects of Protogonus' powers.

Protogonus was the first supreme ruler of the universe.

Most scholars identified Phanes/Protogonus with Eros, the Greek primeval god of love. Like in Hesiod's account about the Creation, Eros sprung out of Chaos at the same time as Gaea and Tartarus, so Eros was a primeval god, unlike later myths, where he was known to the Hellenistic as the mischievous son of Aphrodite (Venus), whom the Roman called Cupid. As Eros, he was often called Bromios (Thunderer), which is the same epithet as Dionysus.

There is some confusion of whether Nyx (Night) was his mother, wife or daughter. The source that I have with me is that Nyx was his daughter, whom he had sex with, to beget Heaven (Uranus) and Earth (Gaea).

As Phanes, he was seen a sun god or the god of light. Phanes has four eyes, and heads of various animals. Phanes was depict as a sexless god or a god with both sexes (androgynous being, ie a Demiurge) with golden wings. Phanes was also invisible but he radiated pure light.

Protogonus or Phanes had also been identified with the god Zagreus or Dionysus, or he is Dionysus. When Zeus became powerful, he had swallowed Protogonus and all things that Protogonus had created. Zeus then recreated a new world. Then Zeus copulated with his own daughter, Persephone, and Protogonus was reborn as Zagreus or Dionysus. But the Titans had killed Zagreus, but Zeus saved the heart. Zeus swallowed Zagreus' heart and then mated with a mortal woman named Semele, and she gave birth to Dionysus, the reincarnation of Protogonus/Zagreus.

 
Related Information
Name
Protogonus, Protogonos, Πρωτογονυς – "First-Born".
Phanes, Φανης – "Revealer".
Ericapaeus – "Power".
Metis, Διόνυσος – "Intelligence".

Eros (Love)?
Dionysus?, Διόνυσος

Sources
Rhapsodic Theogony.

Orphic Hymns.

Dionysiaca was written by Nonnus.

Theogony and Works and Days were written by Hesiod.

Related Articles
See also Eros and Dionysus.

Chaos, Aether, Nyx, Gaea, Uranus, Zeus.
Titans.

Orphic Creation.









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