According to Hesiod, the word Titan (Τιτησι) seemed to be means "Strainer", because they strained and performed some presumptuous, fearful deed and the vengeance would come after it. Where the Olympians lived in Olympus, the home of the Titans was Othrys (Οθρυος), their stronghold.

The exact number of the Titans varied from author to author, and they often included some of the children of the Titans. So there are at least two generations of Titans can be considered.

For a generation, the Titans shared the world, with Cronus as their leader. It was the Titans who created mankind. A number of the male Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus, when they chose to fight a war against the younger gods, known as the Olympians.

According to the Orphic myth, Zeus destroyed the Titans with his thunderbolts, because the Titans had murdered and devoured his son Zagreus (Dionysus). From the smouldering ashes, mankind were created.

See the Creation about the war between the Titans and the Olympians.

I have divided the Titans into two. The first group were the children of Gaea and Uranus. The other group of articles was about the second generation Titans.


  Children of Uranus & Gaea
  Second Generation Titans


Genealogy:
    Greek Deities

Related Page:
    Creation
    Olympians






Children of Uranus & Gaea

The Titans can be used to strictly apply to the firstborn children of Gaea (Earth) and Uranus (Heaven).

According to Hesiod, Cronus was the youngest and boldest of the Titans, was their leader. Cronus became the supreme ruler of the universe, when he deposed his father Uranus. His own sons would later overthrow him and some of his brothers, confined in Tartarus. (See Creation)

According to Hesiod, the Titans were twelve in numbers, six sons and six daughters, though the numbers can vary from one author to another. In the Orphic cosmogony, there are 14 in number - 7 Titans and 7 Titanesses. These don't count the third or even second generation Titans.


  Hesiod Apollodorus Diodorus Siculus Orphic Hyginus
Titans Cronus
Oceanus
Hyperion
Iapetus
Crius
Coeus
Cronus
Oceanus
Hyperion
Iapetus
Crius
Coeus
Cronus
Oceanus
Hyperion
Iapetus
Crius
Coeus
Cronus
Oceanus
Hyperion
Iapetus
Crius
Caus
Phorcys
Saturn
Ocean
Hyperion
Polus
Atlas
Titaness Rhea
Tethys
Theia
Themis
Phoebe
Mnemosyne
Rhea
Tethys
Theia
Themis
Phoebe
Mnemosyne
Dione
Rhea
Tethys
Themis
Phoebe
Mnemosyne
Rhea
Tethys
Theia
Themis
Phoebe
Mnemosyne
Dione
Ops
Themis
Moneta
Dione



Quite a few authors listed Dione among the Titanesses, though she was sometimes called an Oceanid.

According to the Orphic genealogy, Uranus and Gaea had seven sons and seven daughters, where they included Phorcys and Dione in the listing of the Titans.


  Cronus
  Oceanus
  Hyperion
  Iapetus
  Coeüs
  Crius
  Rhea
  Tethys
  Themis
  Mnemosyne
  Theia
  Phoebe
  Dione


Genealogy: Family Tree of the Greek Deities.

Related Page: Creation



Κρόνος
Cronus (Saturn)
 

Ruler of the universe and the leader of the Titans. Cronus was the youngest son of Uranus and Gaea; though, according to Diodorus Siculus, he was the eldest child.

Cronus married his sister Rhea and was the father of Hestia, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, Hera and Zeus.

Cronus was the sky god and the chief god of the universe, after overthrowing Uranus. Uranus became powerless when his son had castrated him. Cronus was also the god of agriculture and fertility. The Romans had identified as Saturn, the Roman god of agriculture. In astronomy, Saturn is the 6th planet in the solar system. Before the telescope was invented, it was the last planet that can be seen with the naked eye, so in much of history Saturn was the outermost planet in the solar system. Saturn is classified as a large gas giant planet, best-known for its rings.


When his father (Uranus) imprisoned his brethren, the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops, within her Gaea's body, it caused his mother-wife great suffering. Gaea appealed to her youngest son, to help release them. Cronus being the strongest and most cunning of the Titans, agreed to help. Cronus severed his father's genitals with a sickle and threw them in the sea. (See War of the Gods)

Overthrowing his father (Uranus), Cronus became supreme ruler of the universe. He shared the rule with other Titans. Cronus supplanted Uranus as the god of the sky. During his reign, Cronus created mankind, which was marked as an era of the Golden Age, the most peaceful time of mankind (See Five Ages of Man).

Instead of releasing the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops, he kept them imprisoned in Tartarus, the lowest region of the Underworld. Outraged that her son did not release her other children - the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops - Gaea foretold a day would come when Cronus' own sons will overthrow him.

Fearing he will suffer from the same fate as his father, Cronus tried to prevent it by swallowing each child after they were born. Rhea managed to trick her husband by giving him a large stone covered in swaddling cloth, instead of her last child, Zeus. Cronus swallowed the stone. Rhea then secretly sent her son to Crete, where he was brought up.

When Zeus reached adulthood, Rhea tricked Cronus into drinking an emetic, that Cronus disgorged their other children. War broke between Cronus and the other Titans against the younger gods. The younger deities became known as the Olympians. Cronus and the other Titans were defeated when Zeus released the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops from Tartarus. Most of the male Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus. Zeus then became supreme ruler of the universe.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

 
Related Information
Name
Cronus, Cronos, Kronus, Kronos, Κρόνος (Greek).
Saturn, Saturnis (Roman).

Related Articles
Uranus, Gaea, Rhea, Hestia, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, Hera, Zeus.

See also Saturn.

Creation.

Facts and Figures: Astronomy.


Cronus Devouring One Of His Sons
Goya
Oil on canvas, 1820-23
Prado Museum, Madrid



Ῥεία
Rhea (Ops)
 

Titaness and earth-goddess. Rhea was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea. According to Diodorus Siculus, Rhea's other name was Pandora. Rhea was identified by the Roman as the goddess Ops and Magna Mater.

Rhea married her brother, Cronus and was the mother of Olympians: Hestia, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, Hera and Zeus.

When it was prophesied that her children would overthrow her brother/husband, Cronus, he took steps to prevent it. As Rhea gave birth to each child, Cronus would take the infant and swallow the child. When her youngest son, Zeus was born, fearing that she would lose all her children, Rhea wrapped swaddling cloth around a stone and gave it to her husband. Cronus unwittingly swallowed the stone. Rhea secretly sends her son to Crete, where Zeus was brought up by mountain nymphs and the Curetes.

She later helped Zeus to force her husband disgorged her other children. Rhea and her mother (Gaea) provided emetic to the Oceanid Metis, Zeus' first wife. Metis had served the emetic Cronus with his drink, so that Cronus had vomited out his five children.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

As Ops, she was the goddess of plenty or fertility. Ops was worshipped along with Consus, a god with an obscure function.

She was sometimes identified as Cybele, a Phrgyian earth/mother goddess. Rhea was also associated with the Cretan goddess, Dictynna, who was previously known as Britomartis.

According to the Orphic myth, after Zeus was born, her name was changed to Demeter. As Demeter, she was raped by her son Zeus, so that she gave birth to Persephone. In turn, Zeus would rape their daughter (Persephone) so that she became the mother of Dionysus, known to the Neoplatonists as Zagreus.

 
Related Information
Name
Rhea, Rheia, Ῥεία.
Ops, Magna Mater (Roman).
Brimô (Phrygian).

Related Articles
See also the Creation and Gaea and her Daughters in Mother Goddesses.

Uranus, Gaea, Cronus, Hestia, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, Hera, Zeus.

Saturn, Consus.


Rhea presents Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes instead of the infant Zeus
Marble relief, c. 400 BC



Ὠκανωός
Oceanus
 

Titan and god of the river Oceanus (Ocean). Oceanus was the eldest son of Uranus and Gaea. The river Oceanus is said to flow in a circular stream about the earth, which was conceived as flat disk.

Oceanus married his sister, Tethys. All of his sons became river-gods. Oceanus was said to have three thousand daughters, who were known as the Oceanids.

Oceanus was the only son of Uranus (as a Titan) who did not join his brothers in the war against Zeus and his brothers (the Olympians). During the war, Hera was left in the care of Oceanus and his wife.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

According to Homer and Apollonius of Rhodes, Oceanus was older than the Titans. To Homer, the gods arose from primeval river Ocean. He was the oldest of all the gods, and has the distinction of being the father of the gods. See Homeric Creation.

While according to Apollonius' Argonautica, the Creator goddess Eurynome sprang from the Ocean, very much like Hesiod's Aphrodite did. See also Eurynome and Ophion in the Creation page.

 
Related Information
Name
Oceanus, Oceanos, Okeanos, Okeanus, Ὠκανωός (Greek).

Related Articles
See also Oceanus in Ancient Deities.

Tethys, Uranus, Gaea, Hera, Styx, Metis, Doris, Oceanids.


Oceanus
mosaic in the villa of Materuo
Carranque, near Madrid



Τηθύς
Tethys
 

Titaness of the sea. Tethys was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea. She married her brother, Oceanus. She became the mother of all the river gods. She is said to have bore three thousand daughters, known as the Oceanids.

The eldest daughter being Styx, who was the only female river goddess; while Amphitrite, who married Poseidon, and Doris, who married Nereus, became sea goddesses.

During the war between the Titans and Olympians, Hera was left in the care of Oceanus and his wife.

According to the Iliad, Oceanus and Tethys were going through a separation, and Hera wanted to reconcile them. Hera was concern for her foster parents, but this was actually a ploy by Hera to seduce Zeus, so that he would forget about the Trojans.

According to various sources, Tethys and her husbands were the primeval parents of the gods. They were not Titans, but the eldest of the gods.

 
Related Information
Name
Tethys, Τηθύς (Greek).
Salacia (Roman).

Related Articles
Oceanus, Uranus, Gaea, Hera, Styx, Amphitrite, Doris, Oceanids.


Tethys at Vulcan's forge
Wall painting from the House of the Golden Cupids, Pompeii. 62-79 AD.



Ὑπερίων
Hyperion
 

Titan of the sun. Hyperion was the son of Uranus and Gaea. Hyperion married his sister, the Titaness Theia, and was the father of Helius ("Sun"), Eos ("Dawn"), and Selene ("Moon"). He was sometimes confused with his son, Helius, who was also a sun god.

Like his brothers who had fought against Zeus, he was imprisoned in Tartarus.

According to Diodorus Siculus, Hyperion was a mortal consort of Basileia (Theia), who was murdered by his brothers (Titans). See Creation, Cosmogony of Diodorus Siculus.

 
Related Information
Name
Hyperion, Ὑπερίων – "He who travels above".

Related Articles
Theia, Eos, Helius, Selene, Uranus, Gaea.



Θεία
Theia
 

Titaness of sorcery. Theia was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea. She was sometimes called, Euryphaëssa (Eurtphaessa).

Theia was the goddess of light. She married her brother Hyperion, and was the mother of Eos ("Dawn"), Helius ("Sun"), and Selene ("Moon"). By her other brother Oceanus, she was mother of the Cercopes.

According to Diodorus Siculus, she was named Basileia, another name for Theia, the queen who ruled after Uranus. Married to Hyperion, and had a son and daughter, Helius and Selene. She was a mortal queen who had been deified into a goddess. When the Titans murdered her husband and drowned her son, Basileia wandered through the land, until she vanished after a thunderstorm. See Creation, Cosmogony of Diodorus Siculus.

 
Related Information
Name
Theia, Thea, Thei, Θεία.
Euryphaëssa.

Basileia (according to Diodorus).

Related Articles
Hyperion, Eos, Helius, Selene, Oceanus, Uranus, Gaea.



Θέμις
Themis
 

Titaness of justice. Themis was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea. Like her mother, she was known as the earth-goddess. She later became known as the goddess of order and justice.

Themis was the second wife of Zeus. Themis became the mother of many children: the Seasons (Horae) - Eunomia ("Order"), Dike ("Justice") and Eirene ("Peace") - and the Fates (Moerae).

According to Aeschylus, Themis had married her brother Iapetus (before she was wife of Zeus), and became the mother of the Titan Prometheus.

She was also gifted with the prophecy or oracle, like her mother. Delphi originally belonged to Gaea, before Themis received it from her mother. Later she relinquished the oracle at Delphi to Apollo.

Justice was not only found in Olympus and on Earth, for it will also be found in the Underworld. It was her judgement that was final, if the shade goes to the Elysian Fields or to Tartarus. Themis was seen as the seated goddess, wearing a blindfold over her eyes; the blindfold symbolised her impartiality in judgement and setting reward or penalty to the dead. The Erinyes or the Furies would take the guilty to Tartarus.

Themis had three attendants, who also acted as judges over the souls of the dead in the Underworld. They were sons of Zeus - one of them was Aeacus, king of Aeacus and the son of Aegina, the other two were Rhadamanthys and Minos, whose mother was Europa. The three judges became minor gods of the Underworld.

More details about her life, can be found in the new Mother Goddesses page.

 
Related Information
Name
Themis, Θέμις – "Order".

Related Articles
See also Gaea and her Daughters in Mother Goddesses.

Zeus, Seasons (Horae), Fates (Moerae), Prometheus, Uranus, Gaea, Aeacus, Aegina, Minos, Europa.


Themis
Marble statue from the temple of Nemesis in Ramnunta, 3rd century BC
National Archaeologic Museum, Athens



Μνημοσύνη
Mnemosyne
 

Titaness of memory. Mnemosyne ("Memory") was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea. She was the abstract personification of memory. In Roman myths, she was called Moneta.

By Zeus, she was the mother of nine daughters, known as the Muses. Zeus had slept with Mnemosyne for nine nights, and one year later, she gave birth to the nine wondrous daughters. Mnemosyne had named them as Cleio, Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene, Terpischore, Erato, Polyhymnia, Urania and Calliope being her eldest daughter.

 
Related Information
Name
Mnemosyne, Μνημοσύνη – "Memory".
Mnemosyne, Moneta (Roman).

Related Articles
Zeus, Muses, Uranus, Gaea.



Ἀαπετός
Iapetus
 

Titan. Iapetus was the son of Uranus and Gaea. He married the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, either Clymene or Asia. Iapetus was the father of the Titans, Atlas, Menoetius, Prometheus and Epimetheus. Some say that Iapetus married his own sister Themis, and became the father of Prometheus.

His son, Prometheus, tried to persuade him to side with Zeus rather than fight him. Iapetus did not listen to his son's wise counsel. So when Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Iapetus was confined with them in Tartarus.

Iapetus's sons didn't escape from Zeus' wrath. Atlas was punished for aiding the Titans in the war against the Olympians. Atlas bore the weight of heaven on his shoulders (see Atlas). Iapetus had another son, Menoetius, was struck down by his thunderbolt before the young Titan was sent down to Erebus (Underworld). Hesiod didn't say what cause other than mad presumption and exceeding pride.

Though, Iapetus' other two sons supported Zeus and the Olympians in the war, Epimetheus married Pandora, the first woman who had released all the woes to mankind. Prometheus was chained to rock where the giant Caucasian Eagle fed on his liver. At night, the liver would grow back again, before the eagle would return in the morning, to feed upon his liver. Each new day, was a fresh torture. Zeus had punished Prometheus because the Titan had championed the cause of mankind.

See Prometheus or the Creation.

 
Related Information
Name
Iapetus, Iapetos, Ἀαπετός.
Eurymedon.

Related Articles
Themis, Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Uranus, Gaea, Zeus.



Coeüs
 

Titan of intellect. Coeüs (Coeus) was the son of Uranus and Gaea. He married his sister Phoebe, became the father of Leto and Asteria.

Coeüs seemed to be the god of intellect.

When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other male Titans, Coeüs was confined with his brothers and nephews in Tartarus.

 
Related Information
Name
Coeüs, Coeus, Coios, Koios, Κοἳος.
Polus (Roman).

Related Articles
Phoebe, Leto, Asteria, Uranus, Gaea.



Crius
 

Titan. Crius was the son of Uranus and Gaea. Crius married his half-sister Eurybia, daughter of Gaea and Pontus, and became father of Perses, Pallas and Astraeus.

When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Crius was confined with them in Tartarus.

 
Related Information
Name
Crius, Creios, Krios, Κρίσος.

Related Articles
Eurybia, Perses, Pallas, Astraeus, Uranus, Gaea.



Φοίβη
Phoebe
 

Titaness of the moon. Phoebe was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea. Phoebe married her brother Coeüs (Coeus). Phoebe became the mother of Leto and Asteria, so Phoebe was the grandmother of Apollo, Artemis and Hecate.

Her name means "light", and she seemed to be identified with the moon. According to the 5th century BC playwright Aeschylus, Phoebe gave the oracle of Delphi to her grandson Apollo (son of Leto), though most writers say that it was her sister Themis who relinquished Delphi to Apollo after he had slew the dragon Python.

According to the Pelasgian Creation Myth, Phoebe was assigned by Eurynome, to rule the power of the moon, alongside the Titan Atlas.

 
Related Information
Name
Phoebe, Φοίβη – "Shining" or "Resplendent".

Related Articles
Coeüs, Leto, Asteria, Uranus, Gaea, Themis, Atlas, Apollo.



Διώνη
Dione
 

Dione was an obscure goddess. It was not certain whether she was either Titaness or Oceanid. None of the writers I had come across say anything about her attribute, but she is most likely to be the goddess of the sea, mainly because of Dione was also known by another name, Thalassa, who was a sea deity. Under this name, she was possibly the wife of the ancient sea god, Pontus.

According to Hesiod, in Theogony, she was an Oceanid, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.

According to Homer in the Iliad, Dione was mother of the love goddess, Aphrodite, by Zeus. Dione comforted her daughter, when the Greek hero Diomedes had wounded Aphrodite. Homer doesn't give any indication of who Dione's parents were, nor what her functions were. The Greek mythographer, Apollodorus, and the tragedian, Euripides in his play Helen, had also named her the mother of Aphrodite, except that they had listed her as the daughter of Uranus and Gaea, which therefore make her a Titaness. (Hesiod give a different account on the birth of Aphrodite, so the love goddess in the Olympians.) The Roman mythographer had likewise listed Dione as a Titaness and mother of Venus (Aphrodite).

Dione shared with Zeus the sacred oracle of Dodona.

  Sources
Titan Homer: Iliad ?
Apollodorus: Library.
Euripides: Helen.
Hyginus: Fabulae.
Pelasgian myth.
Oceanid Hesiod: Theogony.


In the Homeric Hymns (to Delian Apollo), she was one of goddesses to witness Leto giving birth to Apollo on the island of Delos.

The importance of name is shown from the fact that it was a feminine form of Zeus. In the Linear B tablets, Dione's name was DI-WI-JA or Diwia, whereas Zeus' name was DI-WO, DI-WE or DI-WI-JE-U. She may have being an important goddess between before the Dorian migration and the time of Homer. It is believed when the Hellenic Greek migrated to Greece (1150-950 BC), they brought their gods with them. Originally Dione was the wife and consort of Zeus, their supreme god of heaven and earth. However, she was later displaced by another pre-Hellenic Argive goddess Hera, who became Zeus' consort in Olympus.

According to the Pelasgian Creation Myth, Dione was assigned by Eurynome, to rule the power of the moon, alongside the Titan Atlas.

 
Related Information
Name
Dione, Διώνη.
Thalassa.
DI-WI-JA or Diwia (Minoan).

Related Articles
Uranus, Gaea, Oceanus, Tethys, Zeus, Aphrodite, Pontus.

Titans, Oceanids, Nereids.









Second Generation Titans

The second generation Titans or the Younger Titans were children of the elder Titans (children of Uranus and Gaea).

So what make the younger generation as Titans? Perhaps, if either his or her parents were Titans?

There are no given prerequisites would make them Titans, because not all the children of the elder Titans were known as Titans.

If the rule of both parents were Titans, then technically the children of Cronus and Rhea (ie the Olympians) were Titans. Also the Titans Oceanus and Tethys had thousands of children - 3000 river gods and 3000 Oceanid nymphs. The children of Oceanus could not be Titans. The Oceanids Styx and perhaps her sister Metis were the only exception - they were considered to be both Oceanids and Titans. Styx was the first to change side to Zeus, in the war between the Titans and Olympians, while Metis happened to be Zeus' first wife.

Some would say that Helius and his sisters were Titans, while other writers say they weren't. I am uncertain with Helius, Eos and Selene, which is why you will find them in Minor Greek Deities (under Sky Deities) instead of in this page.

Some even believe that the goddess Hecate was a Titaness. If this is true, then she would be a third generation Titaness.

Below are the names that I am sure they were Titans or Titanesses.


  Atlas
  Prometheus
  Epimetheus
  Helius, see Minor Greek Deities, Helius
  Perses
  Astraeus
  Pallas
  Leto
  Asteria
  Styx, see House of Hades, Styx
  Metis, see Minor Greek Deities, Metis



Ἄτλας
Atlas
 

Titan. Atlas was the son of the Titan Iapetus by the Oceanid Clymene or Asia. He was the brother of Menoetius, Prometheus and Epimetheus.

When his brother, Prometheus tried to persuade him not to go to war against the Olympians, he did not listen. Zeus punished Atlas, by making the Titan carry the weight of the sky upon his shoulders.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

Atlas married Pleïone (Pleione), daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. He was the father of seven daughters known as the Pleiades: Electra, Taÿete (Tayete), Maia, Celaeno, Alcyone, Asterope (Sterope) and Merope. Only Merope had a mortal husband, Sisyphus, king of Corinth.


Atlas was also possibly the father of the Hesperides (Daughters of the Evening Star), the guardian of the golden apples in the garden of Hesperides. By Hesperis, Atlas was the father of Aegle, Arethusa, Erytheia, Hespere (Hespera), Hespereia, Hesperusa and Hestia. Others say that the Hesperides may have been daughters of Erebus and Nyx, or of Phorcys and Ceto, or of Zeus and Themis.


One story say that the hero Perseus who was returning home with the head of Gorgon Medusa, turned the Titan into stone, more out of pity than hostility.

This tale would contradict of Atlas encountering another hero, Heracles, who was a great grandson of Perseus. Heracles was performing the eleventh labour which involved fetching the golden apples of Hesperides. Atlas failed to trick Heracles into shouldering the burden of the heaven. Read the Twelve Labour of Heracles.

 
Related Information
Name
Atlas, Ἄτλας.

Related Articles
Iapetus, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Perseus, Heracles.



Προμηθεός
Prometheus
 

Titan of forethought. Prometheus ("Forethought") was the son of the Titan Iapetus and by Iapetus' sister Themis or by Clymene or Asia, both were Oceanids. Prometheus was the brother of Atlas, Menoetius and Epimetheus. He married Pronoea and was the father of Deucalion.

During the war between the Titans and Olympians, Prometheus sided with Zeus, knowing that the war would end with the younger gods winning the war. Prometheus unsuccessfully tried to persuade his father Iapetus and his brother Atlas to change side. Iapetus was thrown into Tartarus, while Atlas would be forever burdened with the weight of heaven on his shoulder.

When Athena was about to be born, it was either he or Hephaestus that split opened Zeus' head with an axe. Athena sprung out of Zeus' head, fully armed.

Prometheus was champion of the race of men. He was also the most shrewdest and intelligent of all the gods. He stole fire and gave it to mortals, hiding in a hollow fennel-stalk, which he took to men. He tricked Zeus in accepting the worse part of the sacrifice to the gods, while mortals kept the best part for themselves.

Prometheus probably had the power to see in the future. Prometheus managed to save his son and family, during the Deluge.

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

Prometheus was later punished by Zeus, who had him bound in Cascausia. A giant Caucasian Eagle fed on his liver each day.

When Prometheus met Io, who wandered the land in the form of a cow, he predicted her future that she would return to her human form in Egypt; she would give birth to her son to Zeus in Egypt. Prometheus also saw that Io's descendant would one day free him from his chain. Generations later, he was finally freed by Heracles, son of Zeus and descendant of Io, fulfilling his prediction. The Centaur named Cheiron gave up his immortality to Prometheus, so that the immortal Centaur may die, having suffered from torment from Heracles' arrow.

Either he or Themis predicted that any son of the sea-goddess Thetis would become greater than the father. Zeus, who was about to seduce Thetis, wanted to avoid the same fate of his father and grandfather, so he quickly married Thetis off to a mortal hero named Peleus.

 
Related Information
Name
Prometheus, Προμηθεός – "Forethought".

Related Articles
Iapetus, Atlas, Epimetheus, Zeus, Io, Heracles, Cheiron.



Ἐπιμηθεύα
Epimetheus
 

Titan of afterthought. Epimetheus ("Afterthought") was the son of the Titan Iapetus by the Oceanid Clymene or Asia.

Brother of Prometheus, Menoetius and Atlas. Epimetheus married the first mortal woman Pandora and was the father of Pyrrha.

Unlike his brother, Prometheus, Epimetheus was not a very bright god, as his name suggest "afterthought". He was sometimes called Epimetheus the Scatter-brain (highly unflattering).

See Creation, Theogony of Hesiod.

 
Related Information
Name
Epimetheus, Ἐπιμηθεύα – "Afterthought".

Related Articles
Iapetus, Atlas, Prometheus.



Λητώ
Leto
 

Leto was the daughter of the Titans Coeüs (Coeus) and Phoebe. Leto was the sister of Asteria. It is uncertain what attribute that this goddess had, but she may have a mother goddess or goddess of fertility.

Leto was also mother of two important Olympian gods, Apollo and Artemis, by Zeus.

Of all the goddesses who suffered from Hera's jealously, none suffered more than Leto. Zeus had seduced Leto. And though she was a goddess, Leto was persecuted right throughout her pregnancy.

Everyone feared to let Leto give birth on their land, fearing Hera's wrath. Leto was forced to wander until she arrived on the island of Ortygia (island near Delos?, the story is that her sister Asteria was changed into an island. See Asteria).

Hera prevented her daughter Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth, from easing Leto's labour pain. According to, Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis, clinging to an olive tree.

Other sources say that she gave birth to Artemis only on the island of Ortygia. Then the infant Artemis helped her mother with giving birth to Apollo on the island of Delos.


Apollo and Artemis were often there to help her whenever she was in trouble. In Delphi, she was chased by giant Tityus (Tityos), who tried to rape her.

Tityus was a giant he was the son of Zeus and Elare, the daughter of Orchomenus. To protect Elare and the unborn child from the wrath of Hera, Zeus hid Elare under the earth. Tityus grew rapidly.

Leto was travelling to visit her son in Pythos (Delphi), when Tityus saw her and was overcome with lust for the Titaness. Tityus pursued Leto until her children arrived and killed the giant. But his punishment didn't stop with his death. Apollo and Artemis had Tityus bound in Tartarus, where vultures feed eternally from Tityus' heart (Homer says livers).


When Niobe boasted that she had seven-times more children than Leto, who were strong and beautiful. Niobe foolishly told the Thebans to abandon the worship of Leto and worship her as a mother goddess.

Apollo and Artemis answered the queen by kill all her children. See Wrath of Heaven, for more detail about Niobe and her children.

Leto was sometimes seen hunting in the woods, with her daughter Artemis, and occasionally with her son. Her weapon used for hunting was the bow, of course.

 
Related Information
Name
Leto, Lato, Λητώ (Greek).
Latona (Roman).

Related Articles
Coeüs, Phoebe, Asteria, Apollo, Artemis, Zeus, Hera.


Leto
Vessel, late 6th century BC
British Museum, London



Ἀστερία
Asteria
 

Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeüs (Coeus) and Phoebe. She was the sister of Leto. Asteria married Perses and became mother of Hecate.

Not long after her brother was imprisoned in Tartarus, Zeus fell in love with her. Zeus chased Phoebe, but she escaped him when she threw herself off the cliff and was turned into a quail.

Some say that she was transformed into the island of Delos, which was originally named after her, Asteria or Ortygia (ortyx means "quail"). When her sister became pregnant by Zeus, Leto was persecuted by Hera. Asteria offered her sister a safe haven, to give birth to the twins, Apollo and Artemis.

 
Related Information
Name
Asteria, Ἀστερία.
ortyx – "quail"

Related Articles
Coeüs, Phoebe, Perses, Leto, Hecate, Zeus, Apollo, Artemis.



Πήρσης
Perses
 

Perses was the son of the Titans Crius and Eurybia. He was the brother of Astraeüs (Astraeus) and Pallas. He married Asteria and became father of Hecate.

Perses was probably imprisoned with the other Titans, for participating in the war against Zeus and the Olympians.

 
Related Information
Name
Perses, Πήρσης.

Related Articles
Crius, Eurybia, Asteria, Astraeus, Pallas, Hecate.



Πάλλας
Pallas
 

Pallas was the son of the Titans Crius and Eurybia. He was the brother of Perses and Astraeüs (Astraeus).

He married the Oceanid Styx, and became father of Bia ("Violence"), Cratus ("Strength"), Nike ("Victory") and Zelus ("Emulation").

 
Related Information
Name
Pallas, Πάλλας.

Related Articles
Crius, Eurybia, Perses, Astraeus, Styx.



Ἀστραίων
Astraeüs
 

Son of the Titans Crius and Eurybia. He was the brother of Perses and Pallas. By the goddess Eos, he was the father of Boreas, Zephyrus and Notus - gods of winds (see also Aeolus, for more detail about the wind gods.

His name means "Starry", because he was also father of the stars.

 
Related Information
Name
Astraeüs, Astraeus, Ἀστραίων – "Starry".

Related Articles
Crius, Eurybia, Perses, Pallas, Eos, Boreas.









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