Like in Gaul and Britain where Romans had adopted Celtic gods and given them Roman names (see Gallic Deities and British Deities), so did Romans living in the imperial provinces of Spain (Hispania) adopted Iberian deities. Therefore, these Iberian deities in Spain were more precisely referred to as Romano-Iberian deities.
Unfortunately, description of Romano-Iberian deities are scant and only found in inscriptions in certain area.
The Iberians were most likely the natives of Spain, occupying the whole Iberian Peninsula, and therefore called Iberia. However, many different people had migrated to Spain quite early in the 1st millennium BC, particularly in the south east coasts, by the Greeks and the Phoenicians or Carthaginians.
Some Iberians intermingled with Celts, to form new tribes, which the Roman called Celtiberians. Celtic tribes had travelled through the Pyrennes, between 8th and 6th century BC, occupying large area of northern and central Spain. Spain came into Roman power, after Roman struggle against the Carthingian armies of the great general Hannibal, late 3rd century BC. Through treaties with the Celtiberian tribes, Rome transform the south-eastern into provinces, Hispania Citerior (Nearer Spain) and Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain) in 197 BC; other parts of Spain remained out of Roman control.
However, Celtiberians and other tribes were not happy with Roman treaties, so they became involved in wars that lasted from mid-2nd century until the Celtiberians were finally subdued in 133 BC, when the Roman army, under the general Publius Scipio Aemilianus, captured their stronghold at Numantia.
Even then, the Roman armies faced constant raids from various Spanish tribes. The Roman general, Quintus Sertorius, who was disenchanted by Rome, became the champion of Spanish rebellion against Rome for 8 years, until he was treacherously murdered in 72 BC, by his lieutenant, Perperna. Even today, Sertorius is seen as a great Spanish hero who dared challenge the might of the Roman Senate and their armies.
But, the whole Iberian Peninsula didn’t come to full Roman control until the reign of Augustus in 19 BC. Hispania Citerior became Tarraconensis, while Ulterior Hispania was divided into two provinces (c. 16 BC) – Lusitania (Portugal) and Baetica.
|Ataecina is the chthonic goddess of the Underworld, and have been identified with the Roman goddess Proserpina (Greek Persephone).
She was only known from inscriptions in the Tagus region and in Baetis (Guadalquivir) valley.
|The Romano-Iberian sky god, Candamius, whose name was assimilated to Jupiter, as can be found in the inscription Jupiter Candamius on the tombstone at Mount Candanedo, on the border of Asturias and León.||
|Cariociecus is a Romano-Celtic god of war, who was equated with the Roman god Mars, whose name he was assimilated as Mars Cariociecus. Cariociecus was popular in the region of Lusitania (Portugal).||
|Dercetius is a Romano-Iberian mountain god.|
|Duillae are the goddesses of fertility and vegetation. They appeared as pair of mothers nature. The Duillae appeared similar to the Matres.||
|Eacus was a Romano-Iberian weather god, who is equated with the Roman god, Jupiter Solutorius. Eacus was popular in the region of Castile.||
|Endouellicus was a Romano-Iberian god of the oracles and of healing. He was widely worshipped in Lusitania (Portugal).|
|Semnocosus was a Romano-Iberian god of war. Semnocosus was also a popular god of war for the Roman legions serving in the Hispania provinces.|