Ancient egyptian kingsThis list of pharaohs is a compilation of all ancient Egyptian rulers, starting from the first ruler in Early Dynastic Egypt to the last pharaoh of Egypt in the Ptolemaic Period.

Discover how ancient Egyptian kings reigned differently in different times.

Egyptian Pharaohs: List of Pharaohs

The pharaohs of Egypt were called the High Priest of every temple and the Lord of the two lands. They were the rulers of ancient Egypt in terms of political and religious aspects. The word pharaoh was derived from the Greek word pero or per-a-a, which means Great House.

Pharaohs of ancient Egypt played important roles. They were considered gods on earth, the emperor, the most powerful, and a strong leader in any ancient civilization. It was estimated that approximately 170 Egyptian kings and queens ruled for more than 3,000 years.

Early Dynastic Egypt (c. 3150-2613 BCE)

The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt (c. 3150–c. 2613 BCE) was the start of Egypt’s historical era.

Pharaoh Description
First Dynasty
Narmer/Menes

 

He was the first Pharaoh of Egypt and the last ruler of the pre-Dynastic period. He remains known for the unification of the Lower and Upper Egypt.
Hor-Aha His interest focused on religious rites and building the mastaba.
Djer It was in his time that the trade and industry in Egypt expanded.
Djet He was perhaps the son of Djer.
Merneith She reigned as regent, yet she was very powerful and influential.
Den He was considered the most prominent ruler in the First Dynasty.
Anedjib There was not so much written about him, but his reign was identified as rebellious.
Semerkhet He had a hard time administering his kingdom during his reign.
Qa’a It was during his reign that Egypt flourished in the first dynasty.
Second Dynasty  
Hotempsekhemwy He ended the conflict of the last two princes during the First Dynasty.
Raneb His name mostly appeared on bowls and stone vessels.
Nynetjer There were some arguments on whether he was the one who allowed women to reign.
Senedj He most likely ruled during the Second Dynasty, but how long his reign lasted remains unknown.
Peribsen He was also known as Seth-Peribsen.
Khasekhemwy He was famous for commencing various construction projects in Egypt.

Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE)

The Old Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2613–2181 BCE) was also classified as the “Age of the Pyramids.”

Third Dynasty
Sanakhte He was the king who certified the reliefs from Sinai.
During his reign, Egypt flourished; monuments, temples, and tombs were built; and the military and the technology industry were expanded.
Sekhemkhet He was famous for the so called “buried pyramid.”
Khaba He was known for the Layer Pyramid in Zawyet el-Aryan and other building projects.
Huni It was presumed that he only continued the rules and policies of the former kings for there was no development in the culture during his reign.
Fourth Dynasty
Sneferu He was known for his pyramids: the Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid.
Khufu He was most known for the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Djedefre Some scholars considered Djedefre as the creator of the Great Sphinx of Giza. He was known for being related to the cult of the sun god, Ra.
Khafre He proclaimed himself as the son of Horus.
Menkaure He started to build his temple and pyramid in Giza but died before they were completed.
Shepseskaf He completed the pyramid that Menkaure left in Giza.
Fifth Dynasty
Userkaf He was well-known for the building of the Temple of the Sun of Abusir.
Sahure He was famous for organizing the first Egyptian expedition in the land of Punt.
Neferirkare Kakai It was during his reign that the priesthood became more powerful.
Neferefre He was the son of Neferirkare Kakai. He died early, probably at the age of 20.
Shepseskare He was Neferefre’s successor.
Niuserre Ini The ministries of complexes and temples increased during his reign. The priest of Ra became even more powerful.
Menkauhor He was the ruler who built the last sun temple.
Djedkare Isesi The most important aspect of his reign was the decentralization of the council in Memphis, which gave power to local officials.
Unas He was the first ruler of Egypt to paint his tomb and mark it with the Pyramid Texts.
Sixth Dynasty
Teti His name can be seen on the Abydos, Saqqara, and Manetho’s king list as Othoes.
Pepi I He aimed to expand the kingdom into Nubia and do some trading with other places.
Nemtyemsaf I He was known as Antiemsaf in older literature, but this was proven incorrect.
Pepi II He was only six years old when he started to reign, yet he ruled for 94 years.

First Intermediate Period (2181-2040 BCE)

The First Intermediate Period of Egypt (2181–2040 BCE) was labeled as “dark age” for a long time.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties  
Wadjkare He was regarded as very uncertain in the history of Egypt.
Qakare Ibi His control of power focused mainly in Memphis.
Ninth Dynasty  
Meryibre Khety Meryibtawy was his Horus name. He ruled with an iron fist.
Merykare He focused on the improvement of prosperity instead of war.

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040–1782 BCE) 

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt was claimed to be the classical age of ancient Egypt.

Eleventh Dynasty
Intef I He failed to reunify Egypt under his rule.
Intef II He successfully ruled Egypt for almost 50 years.
Intef III He embarked on building activities in Elephantine.
Mentuhotep I There were some arguments on whether he really was a pharaoh.
Mentuhotep II He left a prosperous and reunited Egypt to his successor.
Mentuhotep III His reign was popular for his architectural transformation and his expedition to Punt.
Twelfth Dynasty
Amenemhet I He was the creator of the 12th dynasty.
Senusret I He kept peaceful alliances with Syria and Palestine.
Amenemhet II He expanded Egypt’s trading and internal development.
Senusret II His greatest accomplishment was the beginning of Al-Fayyūm.
Senusret III He completely amended the Egyptian government and extended his supremacy in Nubia.
Amenemhat III His reign was recognized as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom and the Great Canal.
Amenemhet IV He constructed some parts of the Hathor Temple.
Queen Sobeknefru He was the last ruler of the 12th dynasty.

The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782–c.1570 BCE)

The Second Intermediate Period was the era after the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Thirteenth Dynasty  
Wegaf He was known for various origins of statues and steles.
Sobekhotep I He reigned for only three years.
Ameny Intef IV He was also identified as Intef V or Sehotepkare Intef.
Hor I He reigned for only a few months.
Sobekhotep II He was popular for various monuments.
Khendjer His unusual name meaning “boar” was the reason behind the speculations that he was an immigrant from Syria.
Sobekhotep III He was the first king in the 13th dynasty who existed in historical records.
Neferhotep I He did not come from a royal family. There was little information about his reigning period of 11 years.
Sobekhotep IV He was well-known for numerous building works, such as monuments, statues, and steles.
Neferhotep II Two identities were in doubt: Mersekhemre Ined and Neferhotep II. They were thought to be the same person.
Fifteenth Dynasty
Sheshi There were three hypotheses about what dynasty Sheshi was associated with.
Yakubher The dynasty to which he belonged remains unsure.
Khyan He was considered the king of Hyksos; he bore two titles: Egyptian king and ruler of foreign lands.
Pepi I He aimed to expand the kingdom into Nubia and do some trading with other places.
Pepi II He was only six years old when he started to reign, yet he ruled for 94 years.
Sixteenth Dynasty
Anather / Yakobaam They are known for the scarabs found in northern Egypt and southern Palestine.
Seventeenth Dynasty
Intef VI He maintained the good relationship established in the 15th Dynasty.
Tao I Details about him were unclear.
Tao II He began to free Egypt from the Hyksos in the 15th Dynasty.
Kamose He continued the campaign opposing the Hyksos.

New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570–c. 1069 BCE)

The New Kingdom of Egypt was the era that followed the disharmony in the Second Intermediate Period.

Eighteenth Dynasty  
Ahmose I He started to rule Egypt at the age of 10.
Amenhotep I He ruled with joy and peace. He also began to do a lot of building projects.
Thutmose I He could have been the son of Amenhotep I.
Thutmose II He married Hatshepsut, his half-sister.
Hatshepsut She became Thutmose III’s regent and then later on pharaoh.
Thutmose III He reigned for 52 years, along with a 22-year co-ruler, Hatshepsut.
Amenhotep II It was in his reign when Hatshepsut’s monument began to destroy.
Thutmose IV He took over the throne from his older brother.
Amenhotep III His reign was a period of prosperity; Egypt came to the peak of their artistic and international power.
Akhenaten/Amenhotep IV His name was changed to Akhenaten after reigning for five years.
Smenkhkare She was the female ruler who was using the name Ankhkheperura.
Tutenkhamun He was believed to be also King Tut and belonged to the last royal family that reigned in the 18th dynasty.
Horemheb He was in charge as commander in chief and a successor to Tutankhamun.
Nineteenth Dynasty  
Ramsses I He was old when he ruled Egypt. His son, Seti, took the throne to ensure that the dynasty continues.
Seti I He copied Thutmose III’s Horus name, by just added sankhtawy to it.
Ramsses II He was the most creative builder of the kingdom.
Merneptah He succeeded the throne at the age of 60 years old.
Amenmesses He was able to take the throne in Thebes and the upper parts of Egypt from Seti II.
Seti II He succeeded Merenptah but was overthrown by Amenmesse.
Siptah He was only 10 years old when he succeeded his father, and his mother became his co-ruler.
Queen Twosret She was the great wife of Seti II and regent to their son and heir.
Twentieth Dynasty  
Setnakhte Setnakhte was the father of Ramesses III.
Ramesses III Ramesses was said to be the last great ruler of the New Kingdom.
Ramesses IV He was also known as the “Royal Scribe,” “Hereditary Prince,” and “Generalissimo.”
Ramesses V The reign of Ramesses marked the continuous growth of Amun’s priesthood.
Ramesses VI He ascended to the throne after his predecessor, Ptolemy V, died.
Ramesses VII He was buried in a tomb in KV1, but his mummy was never found.
Ramesses VIII His reign was poorly documented.
Ramesses IX His mummy was found in 1881.

Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069–525 BCE)

The Third Intermediate Period was the era that came after the New Kingdom of Egypt.

Twenty-first Dynasty  
Smendes I He was the first ruler of the 21st Dynasty. He only ruled in Lower Egypt.
Amenemnisu The existence of Amenemnisu was only confirmed when Professor Pierre Montet discovered the tomb of his successor, Psusennes I, in 1940.
Psusennes I He built walls dedicated to Amun, Mut, and Khonsu’s triad.
Amenemope He claimed the title “High Priest of Amun in Tanis” just like his predecessor, Psusennes.
Osorkon the Elder He was the 5th pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty of Egypt and the first ruler of Ancient Libyan.
Siamun He mostly reigned in Lower Egypt.
Psusennes II He was sometimes believed to be the same person as Psusennes III.
Twenty-second Dynasty  
Sheshonq I He became a general under the reign of Psusennes II. He most likely ascended the throne without a struggle.
Osorkon I His reign was said to be long, peaceful, and prosperous.
Sheshonq II His tomb was the only tomb that was not raided by tomb robbers.
Takelot I He married Kapes and had a child and successor named Osorkon II.
Osorkon II He was the 5th king of the 22nd Dynasty. He died around 837 BC and was buried at Tanis.
Sheshonq III Sheshonq III’s reign was marked by the dissolving of Egypt’s political unity.
Pami He was the father of Sheshonq V, his successor.
Sheshonq V Little was known about Sheshonq V’s life.
Osorkon IV He reigned during one of the most difficult periods in ancient Egypt due to political fragments.
Twenty-third Dynasty  
Sheshonq IV He ruled Upper Egypt in the 22nd Dynasty.
Osorkon III He was both the high priest and crown prince during his time in Eighth century BC.
Takelot III He was the eldest son and successor of Osorkon III.
Rudamon According to some articles, Rudamon was the last ruler of the 23rd Dynasty.
Iuput Iuput was the High Priest of Amun during c. 944–924 BCE.
Twenty-fourth Dynasty  
Tafnakt He was known as the “Great Chief of the West.”
Bakenrenef He was Tafnakt’s successor.
Twenty-fifth Dynasty (Nubian)  
Piy/Piankhi He was a Nubian king and heir to the Kingdom of Kush.
Shebitku The 2nd king of the 25th Dynasty and not Shabaka.
Shabaka He constructed a lot of buildings in Thebes, home of Amon-Re.
Taharqa He reunited Egypt after the defeat against the Assyrians.
Tanutamun He was a son to Qalhata and Sahabaka and Taharqa’s successor.

Late Period (525–332 BCE)

The Late Period of Egypt was the era after the Third Intermediate Period.

Twenty-sixth Dynasty  
Psammethicus I He eliminated the Assyrians from Egypt and thereby reunited Egypt.
Nekau He played an important part in the history of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Neo-Assyrian Empire, and the Kingdom of Judah.
Psammethicus II He led a significant expedition against the Kingdom of Kush.
Wahibre Haaibre/Apries He supported the rulers of Levantines against Babylon.
Ahmose II His reign indicated prosperity and wealth in the 26th Dynasty.
Psammethicus III He was the last ruler of the 26th Dynasty.
Twenty-seventh Dynasty         
Cambyses II He honored the goddess Neith of Sais.
Darius I The tax under his reign was light.
Artaxerxes I / Darius II Ochus Under their rule, Egypt’s condition was unsettled. Monuments from the period were scarcely identified.
Twenty-eighth Dynasty
Amyrtaeus He was the only ruler of the 28th Dynasty; he ended the Persian Dynasty.
Twenty-ninth Dynasty
Nefaarud I He was the founder of the 29th Dynasty.
Hakor He was remarkable in his building projects and the restoration of his predecessors’ monuments.
Thirtieth Dynasty
Nectanebo I He successfully won against the Persians trying to reapply their rules in Egypt.
Djedhbor He was the son of Nectanebo I and his co-ruler of three years.
Nectanebo II He was the last king of the 30th Dynasty and the last local Egyptian king.

Ptolemic Period (305–30 BCE)

The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled over Egypt for about three centuries until it eventually fell into Roman hands.

Ptolemy I Soter

 

He received the land of Egypt after the division of the empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelius He fought in the Syrian Wars and the Chremonidean War.
Ptolemy III Euergetes He was the husband of Berenice II and the father of Ptolemy IV and Princess Berenice.
Ptolemy IV Philapator He built a tomb to honor Ptolemy and Alexander.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes He inherited the throne from his parents at a very young age.
Ptolemy VI Philometor He formally controlled Egypt with the help of Rome.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopater His time was controversial; there was no assurance on whether this ruler really reigned.
Ptolemy VIII He and Ptolemy VI Philometor ruled together.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II He was identified to have political conflicts with his brother, Ptolemy VI, and sister, Cleopatra II.
Ptolemy XII Nios Dionysus He was exiled in 58 BCE yet regained the throne with the help of Gabinius.
Ptolemy XIII He was a co-ruler of his famous sister, Cleopatra VII.
Cleopatra VII She was the last Egyptian pharaoh who reigned dominantly and died dramatically.

Conclusion

List of pharaohsThat’s quite a long list, so let’s sum up if we covered everything you need to know about the pharaohs of Egypt.

  • Included here is the estimated list of pharaohs from different periods and dynasties.
  • There were both successful and unsuccessful pharaohs who rulled Egypt.
  • The accounts of some kings were unclear.

Ancient Egyptians experienced different kinds of reign ruling from different rulers. However, one thing is for certain: These rulers all contributed to the majestic dynasties of Egypt that flourished over the period of centuries.

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