Timeline of the Israelite Kingdoms

United Israelite Kingdom

Saul c. 1030 – c. 1010 BC
David c. 1010 – c. 970 BC
Solomon c. 970 – 931 BC

It should be noted that David didn’t immediately become king of the other eleven tribes, on Saul’s death. David ruled Judah first, for seven and a half year, with Hebron as his captial, before he became king of the unified kingdom. Therefore, David ruled for all the tribes of Israel, for only 33 years, 40 years in the tribe of Judah (1 Kings 2:10-11). Saul’s son, Ishbosheth became king of the northern kingdom, Israel, before he was murdered by his two officers.

Solomon had ruled for 40 years, though one of his officer, Jeroboam had rebelled against his rule in the last year of Solomon’s rule.

In the 4th year of Solomon’s reign, 1 Kings 6:1 indicated that 480 years have passed since Moses led the Israelite tribes in exodus out of Egypt. This would mean that the Exodus happened about 1447-1446 BC.

Kingdoms of Judah and Israel

Judah
Rehoboam 931-913 BC
Abijah 913-911 BC
Asa 911-870 BC
Jehosphaphat 870-848 BC
Jehoram 848-841 BC
Ahaziah 841 BC
Athaliah 841-835 BC
Joash 835-796 BC
Amaziah 796-781 BC
Uzziah 781-740 BC
Jotham 740-736 BC
Ahaz 736-716 BC
Hezekiah 716-687 BC
Manasseh 687-642 BC
Amon 642-640 BC
Josiah 640-609 BC
Joahaz 609 BC
Jehoiakim 609-598 BC
Jehoaichin 598 BC
Zedekiah 598-587 BC

Israel
Jeroboam I 931-910 BC
Nadab 910-909 BC
Baasha 909-886 BC
Elah 886-885 BC
Zimri 885 BC
Omri 885-874 BC
Ahab 874-853 BC
Ahaziah 853-852 BC
Joram 852-841 BC
Jehu 841-814 BC
Jehoahaz 814-798 BC
Jehoash 798-783 BC
Jeroboam II 783-743 BC
Zechariah 743 BC
Shallum 743 BC
Menahem 743-738 BC
Pekahiah 738-737 BC
Pekah 737-732 BC
Horshea 732-723 BC

Below is the table that list the periods of Hebrew-Israel history, politically and in literature.

Year Period
957 – 587/6 BC First Temple period
587/6 – 538 BC Babylonian Exile
538 BC – AD 70 Second Temple period
c. 300 BC – c. AD 200 Dead Sea Scrolls

The kingdoms of divided Israelite people fall under the First Temple period, beginning with Solomon’s completion of the temple in Jerusalem till the fall of Jerusalem and destruction of Solomon’s temple, in 587/6 BCE.

Israel, the northern kingdom, had fallen to the Assyrians, particularly after the captured of capital, Samaria, in 721 BCE.

According to the OT, on 2 Kings, the Babylonians captured Jerusalem, and deported as hostages to Babylon. The king was Nebuchadrezzar II (reign, c. 605–c. 561 BCE), the 2nd king of the Chaldean dynasty. It was the mark of zenith of the Babylonian empire, known as the Neo-Babylonian period. Nebuchadrezzar’s empire absorbed the Assyrian Empire, and extends from Egypt in the west to Elam/Persia in the east. The Babylonian empire, under Nabonidus, had fallen to Cyrus II (c. 550-529 BCE) with the fall of Babylon, October 539 BCE.

For the Jewish history, their period of captivity was known as the Babylonian Exile, 586–538 BCE. Much of the Hebrew scriptures were composed, edited and interpreted during this period and afterward. This work continued when Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem in 538 BCE.