United Israelite Kingdom
|Saul||c. 1030 – c. 1010 BC|
|David||c. 1010 – c. 970 BC|
|Solomon||c. 970 – 931 BC|
It should be noted that David didn’t immediately become king of the other eleven tribes, on Saul’s death. David ruled Judah first, for seven and a half year, with Hebron as his captial, before he became king of the unified kingdom. Therefore, David ruled for all the tribes of Israel, for only 33 years, 40 years in the tribe of Judah (1 Kings 2:10-11). Saul’s son, Ishbosheth became king of the northern kingdom, Israel, before he was murdered by his two officers.
Solomon had ruled for 40 years, though one of his officer, Jeroboam had rebelled against his rule in the last year of Solomon’s rule.
In the 4th year of Solomon’s reign, 1 Kings 6:1 indicated that 480 years have passed since Moses led the Israelite tribes in exodus out of Egypt. This would mean that the Exodus happened about 1447-1446 BC.
Kingdoms of Judah and Israel
Below is the table that list the periods of Hebrew-Israel history, politically and in literature.
|957 – 587/6 BC||First Temple period|
|587/6 – 538 BC||Babylonian Exile|
|538 BC – AD 70||Second Temple period|
|c. 300 BC – c. AD 200||Dead Sea Scrolls|
The kingdoms of divided Israelite people fall under the First Temple period, beginning with Solomon’s completion of the temple in Jerusalem till the fall of Jerusalem and destruction of Solomon’s temple, in 587/6 BCE.
Israel, the northern kingdom, had fallen to the Assyrians, particularly after the captured of capital, Samaria, in 721 BCE.
According to the OT, on 2 Kings, the Babylonians captured Jerusalem, and deported as hostages to Babylon. The king was Nebuchadrezzar II (reign, c. 605–c. 561 BCE), the 2nd king of the Chaldean dynasty. It was the mark of zenith of the Babylonian empire, known as the Neo-Babylonian period. Nebuchadrezzar’s empire absorbed the Assyrian Empire, and extends from Egypt in the west to Elam/Persia in the east. The Babylonian empire, under Nabonidus, had fallen to Cyrus II (c. 550-529 BCE) with the fall of Babylon, October 539 BCE.
For the Jewish history, their period of captivity was known as the Babylonian Exile, 586–538 BCE. Much of the Hebrew scriptures were composed, edited and interpreted during this period and afterward. This work continued when Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem in 538 BCE.